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Accepted Manuscripts

BASIC VIEW  |  EXPANDED VIEW
Technical Brief  
Robert D. Blevins
J. Pressure Vessel Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4039391
Flow-induced vibration analysis of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) Replacement Steam Generators is made using non-proprietary public data for these steam generators on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission public web site, www.NRC.com. The analysis uses the methodology of Appendix N Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Subarticle N-1300 Flow-Induced Vibration of Tubes and Tube Banks. First the tube geometry is assembled and overall flow and performance parameters are developed at 100% design flow, then analysis is made to determine the flow velocity in the gap between tubes and tube natural frequencies and mode shapes. Finally, the mass damping and reduced velocity for tubes on the U bend are assembled and plotted on the ASME code Figure N-11331-4 fluid elastic stability diagram for onset of fluid elastic instability
TOPICS: Boilers, Flow-induced vibrations, ASME Standards, Flow (Dynamics), Fluids, Damping, Design, Power stations, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Geometry, Mode shapes, Stability
research-article  
Imad Barsoum and Mohamed Al-Khaled
J. Pressure Vessel Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4039392
Ductile failure in steels is highly controlled the stress triaxiality (T) and the Lode parameter (L). The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code requires pressure vessels to be designed to resist local ductile failure. However, the standard does not account for the Lode parameter dependence in its failure locus. In this study, the influence of the stress state, characterized T and L, on the ductility of ASME tubular steel grades is investigated. Two seamless pipes of mid-strength carbon steel SA-106 Gr.B and high-strength super-duplex steel SA-790 were considered. Ring specimen geometries for plane strain (PS) stress state (L = 0) and tensile stress (TS) state (L = -1) are utilized to establish the ductile failure locus in terms of T and L for the two steels. The experimental results show that the effect of the Lode parameter on the failure locus for the SA-106 Gr.B steel is insignificant, whereas for the SA-790 steel the effect is rather significant. A parameter SL is introduced in order to quantify the sensitivity of the failure locus to the Lode parameter. It is found that for materials with ultimate strength lower than about 550 MPa, the sensitivity to L is insignificant (SL = 1), whereas for materials with ultimate strength higher than 550 MPa, the sensitivity to L could be significant (SL > 1). Scanning electron microscopic analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed that the sensitivity to L is closely associated with the rupture micro-mechanisms involved.
TOPICS: Failure, Steel, Pressure vessels, Stress, Tensile strength, Tension, Carbon steel, Electrons, Ductility, Fracture (Materials), Fracture (Process), Pipes, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Micromechanical devices, Plane strain, Rupture
research-article  
Jun Shi, Jianfeng Shi, Hanxin Chen, Yibin He, Qingjun Wang, Yue Zhang and Guangzhong Li
J. Pressure Vessel Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4039344
Polyethylene pipe reinforced by winding steel wires (PSP) is a new type of polymer-matrix composite pipe that is widely used in petroleum, chemical engineering, and water supply. PSP is composed of a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) core pipe, an outer cover layer (HDPE), and a steel wire skeleton sandwiched in the middle. The steel wire skeleton is formed by crossly winding steel wires integrated with HDPE matrix by cohesive resin. In traditional models, components of PSP are considered linear elastic and the steel wire skeleton is assumed to be an orthotropic composite layer based on classical laminated plate theory. Although satisfactory results can be achieved, traditional models neglect the material nonlinearity of the steel wires and HDPE matrix, which is an important consideration to failure analysis. In this study, a new finite element model was constructed using ABAQUS[1] based on the actual steel wire spiral structure of PSP. The steel wires and the HDPE matrix were modeled separately and were represented by solid elements. The steel wires were not in contact with each other, and the interaction between the steel wires and the HDPE matrix was characterized by tie constraint. Experimental result of short-term burst pressure of PSP was used to validate the nonlinear model. The calculation results of the nonlinear model agreed well with the experimental result. The effects of the nonlinear material property of components on the calculation results were investigated, and the short-term mechanical responses of PSP were analyzed through the nonlinear model.
TOPICS: Steel, Wire, Polyethylene pipes, Finite element model, Winding (process), Composite materials, Pipes, Polymers, Failure analysis, Materials properties, Chemical engineering, Density, Pressure, Plate theory, Petroleum, Resins, Water supply
research-article  
Yupeng Cao, Guian Qian, Yinbiao He, Markus Niffenegger and Yuh J. Chao
J. Pressure Vessel Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4039346
In the integrity analysis of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV), a postulated shallow crack is subjected to biaxial far-field stresses. However, the fracture toughness Kc or Jc, which is an important material property for the integrity assessment of RPVs, is usually tested with deeply-cracked compact tension [C(T)] or single-edged bending [SE(B)] specimens under uniaxial loading. Thus, the fracture toughness data do not reflect the biaxial loading state that cracks in a RPV are subjected to. Cruciform bending specimen was therefore developed to simulate the biaxial stress state. In this paper, a series of finite element (FE) simulations of the cruciform specimens containing different crack geometries and of different material properties are conducted. The crack tip constraint is investigated using the J-A2 theory and the stress field near the crack tips is analyzed. The results show that the biaxial effect is material property dependent. This can contribute to the lifetime prediction of RPVs as well as better design of cruciform specimens and the optimization of the test method.
TOPICS: Simulation, Stress, Fracture (Materials), Materials properties, Design, Engineering simulation, Finite element analysis, Optimization, Fracture toughness, Tension, Reactor vessels
research-article  
Bipul Barua, Subhasish Mohanty, Joseph Listwan, Saurin Majumdar and Krishnamurti Natesan
J. Pressure Vessel Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4039345
This work investigates the behavior of 316 stainless steel (SS) under stress-controlled low cycle fatigue loading. Several fatigue experiments are conducted under different environment such as in-air at 300 °C and primary loop water conditions for a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Two different loading conditions are also employed to examine the effect of stress rate on material hardening and ratcheting. During PWR water test, actuator position measurements are used to determine the strain of the specimen. Under PWR environment, 316 SS is found to ratchet significantly higher. At slow stress rate, higher amount of cyclic hardening is observed in 316 SS. However, slow stress rate increases the rate of ratcheting.
TOPICS: Stress, Coolants, Fatigue testing, Water, Pressurized water reactors, Hardening, Actuators, Low cycle fatigue, Stainless steel, Fatigue
Review Article  
Rajkumar Shufen and Uday S. Dixit
J. Pressure Vessel Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4039206
Autofrettage is a metal forming technique widely incorporated for strengthening the thick-walled cylindrical and spherical pressure vessels. The technique is based on the principle of initially subjecting the cylindrical or spherical vessel to partial plastic deformation and then unloading it; as a result of which compressive residual stresses are set up. On the basis of the type of the forming load, autofrettage can be classified into hydraulic, swage, explosive, thermal and rotational. Considerable research studies have been carried out on autofrettage with a variety of theoretical models and experimental methods. This paper presents an extensive review of various types of autofrettage processes. A wide range of theoretical models and experimental studies are described. Optimization of an autofrettage process is also discussed. Based on the review, some challenging issues and key areas for future research are identified.
TOPICS: Autofrettage, Deformation, Metalworking, Pressure vessels, Residual stresses, Stress, Experimental methods, Optimization, Vessels, Explosives
Technical Brief  
Kunio Hasegawa and Saburo Usami
J. Pressure Vessel Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4039207
Fatigue crack growth thresholds define stress intensity factor range below which cracks will not grow. The thresholds are useful in industries to determine durability lifetime. Although massive fatigue crack growth experiments for stainless steels in air environment had been reported, the thresholds are not codified at the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Code Section XI, as well as other fitness-for-service (FFS) codes and standards. Based on investigation of a few FFS codes and review of literature survey of experimental data, the thresholds exposed to air environment have been developed for the ASME Code Section XI. A guidance of the thresholds for austenitic stainless steels in air at room and high temperatures can be developed as a function of stress ratio R.
TOPICS: Fatigue cracks, Stainless steel, ASME Standards, Fitness-for-service, Stress, Fracture (Materials), ASME, Durability, High temperature, Engineering standards
research-article  
Kai Lu, Mano Akihiro, Jinya Katsuyama, Yinsheng Li and Fuminori Iwamatsu
J. Pressure Vessel Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4039125
The stress intensity factor (SIF) solutions for subsurface flaws near the free surfaces of components, which are known to be important in engineering applications, have not been provided yet. Thus, in this paper, SIF solutions for subsurface flaws near the free surfaces in flat plates were numerically investigated based on finite element analyses. The flaws with aspect ratios a/l = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5, the normalized ratios a/d = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8, and d/t = 0.01 and 0.10 were taken into account, where a is the half flaw depth, l is the flaw length, d is the distance from the center of the subsurface flaw to the nearest free surface and t is the wall thickness. Fourth-order polynomial stress distribution in the thickness direction was considered. In addition, the developed SIF solutions were incorporated into a Japanese probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) code, and PFM analyses were performed for a Japanese reactor pressure vessel containing a subsurface flaw near the inner surface. The PFM analysis results indicate that the obtained SIF solutions are effective in engineering applications.
TOPICS: Stress, Plates (structures), Polynomials, Engineering systems and industry applications, Finite element analysis, Stress concentration, Wall thickness, Reactor vessels, Flat plates, Fracture mechanics
research-article  
Amir Kazemi and Sayed Nassar
J. Pressure Vessel Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4039124
A novel principal stress-based high cycle fatigue (HCF) model is proposed for preloaded threaded fasteners under cyclic tensile-shear loads. The model uses the fastener principal stress amplitude in order to construct a singular multiaxial S-N curve from the conventional uniaxial S-N curve with zero mean stress of bolt along with some experimental data. An MTS fatigue testing system is used first to generate the fastener preload by applying a direct tensile-shear load using a special fixture. Subsequently, the same system is used for applying combined cyclic tensile-shear loading of the fastener at various levels of mean stress. Results show that for the same level of axial stresses, the multiaxial loading would significantly reduce bolt fatigue life as compared to that of uniaxially-loaded bolt. Moreover, only one S-N curve would be able to predict the multiaxial high cycle fatigue of preloaded threaded fasteners, when the maximum principal stress amplitude is used. Detailed discussion of the proposed model results and test data are provided.
TOPICS: Fatigue, Stress, Fasteners, Shear (Mechanics), High cycle fatigue, Fatigue life, Fatigue testing
research-article  
Chandan Pandey, Manas Mohan Mahapatra, Pradeep Kumar and Nitin Saini
J. Pressure Vessel Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4039127
Creep strength ferritic/martensitic modified 9Cr-1Mo (P91) also designated as ASTM A335 used for out-of-core and in-core (piping, cladding, ducts, wrappers, and pressure vessel) of Gen IV reactors. In present investigation, a comparative study on effect of autogenous tungsten inert gas welding (A-TIG) with double pass and multi-pass gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding on microstructure evolution in weld zone and mechanical properties of P91 and P92 steel welded joints were carried out. The microstructure evolution was studied in as-welded and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) condition. The study also focused on the evolution of d-ferrite patches and their influence on the tensile properties of welded joints. PWHT was carried out at 760 oC for varying time of 2 to 6 h. To study the effect of d-ferrite evolution on mechanical properties, Charpy toughness, microhardness and tensile tests were performed.
TOPICS: Steel, Welding, Ferrites (Magnetic materials), Welded joints, Mechanical properties, Cladding systems (Building), Pipes, Ducts, Fracture toughness, Microhardness, Tensile strength, Tungsten, ASTM International, Heat treating (Metalworking), Gas tungsten arc welding, Pressure vessels, Creep
research-article  
A. Ravi Kiran, G. R. Reddy and M.K. Agrawal
J. Pressure Vessel Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4039126
In the present work, inelastic dynamic behavior of a pressurized stainless steel elbow is studied under harmonic base excitation with emphasis on strain accumulation known as ratcheting. Initially, sine sweep test is carried out on the long radius stainless steel (SS 304L) elbow to evaluate the free vibration characteristics. Then incremental harmonic base excitation with first resonant frequency is applied to the elbow till failure and the resulting response is studied. The tested elbow is analyzed using a simplified method and the simulated ratcheting strain is compared with experimental results. Effect of thickness variation in the elbow on strain accumulation is also studied. Levels of base excitation corresponding to different failure criteria are evaluated and the details are provided in the paper.
TOPICS: Stainless steel, Excitation, Failure, Free vibrations, Resonance
Review Article  
Sasan Faghih, Hamid Jahed and Seyed Behzad Behravesh
J. Pressure Vessel Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4039068
This paper provides a critical review of the advancements made in the application of the Variable Material Properties (VMP) method over the past two decades. The VMP method was originally proposed in 1997 (Jahed and Dubey, J. Press. Vessel Technol., vol. 119, no. 3, pp. 264-273, 1997; Jahed, Sethuraman, and Dubey, Int. J. Press. Vessel. Pip., vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 285-291, 1997) and further developed in 2001 (Parker, J. Press. Vessel Technol., vol. 123, no. 3, p. 271, 2001) as an elastoplastic method for the analysis of axisymmetric problems. The model was originally developed as a boundary value problem to predict the spatial distribution of stress. However, since 1997 it has been extended to include thermal effects to solve thermomechanical residual stresses; time domain to solve creep of discs and cylinders; finite deformation to solve cylinders under large strains; numerical solutions to make them more efficient; and asymmetric hardening behavior to accommodate non-slip deformation modes. These advancements, made over the past 20 years, are reviewed in this paper, and future trends and frontiers are discussed.
TOPICS: Materials properties, Vessels, Deformation, Cylinders, Creep, Residual stresses, Stress, Hardening, Temperature effects, Thermomechanics, Disks, Boundary-value problems
research-article  
Weichao Yu, Yuan Min, Weihe Huang, Kai Wen, Ye Zhang and Jing Gong
J. Pressure Vessel Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4039070
Underground gas storage (UGS), a key component of a natural gas pipeline network, can not only be used as an emergency gas source under a pipeline system failure situation, but it is also available for seasonal peak shaving under pipeline system normal operation. Therefore, in order to meet the natural gas needs, it is of vital importance to safeguard the security of UGS operation and assess the reliability of UGS. The aim of the overall study is to develop an integration method for assessing operational reliability of UGS in a depleted reservoir under different injection-production scenarios whereas existing studies only assess a single component or subsystem reliability. According to function zoning, UGS is separated into reservoir, well system and surface system, and reservoir and surface system are connected through well system. The well system contains multiple injection/production wells. For the first step of the reliability assessment, the hydraulic calculation, including the gas injection process calculation and the gas production process calculation, is adopted to obtain the operational parameters of each component in UGS. Next, the reliability of the reservoir, injection/production well and equipment in surface system are evaluated using operation parameters and a Monte Carlo approach. The reliability of the subsystem, such as the well system and surface system, are then calculated according to system reliability theory. Finally, operational reliability of UGS is obtained, which reflects the capacity of performing gas injection-production function. Two test cases are given to illustrate the integration method.
TOPICS: Reservoirs, Reliability, Storage, Pipeline systems, Failure, Reliability theory, Natural gas distribution, Emergencies, Security, Natural gas, Wells, Manufacturing
research-article  
Zhanshu He, Shusen Zhao, Ting Fu, Lei Chen, Yuanxi Zhang, Meng Zhang and Peizhuo Wang
J. Pressure Vessel Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4039071
Water jet peening (WJP) is a mechanical surface strengthening process which can improve the residual stress of the peened surface and then improve the fatigue life of components. In this paper, the erosion experiments are conducted to investigate the influence of peening parameters on erosion. On this basis, residual stresses (RS) induced by WJP are studied in relation to the peening parameters. In addition, the CEL (Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian) technique is used to model and simulate the dynamic impact process of WJP on Al6061-T6. Parameters that influence the performance of WJP including jet pressure p, jet traverse velocity vf , and the number of water jet pass n on the modifica-tion of residual stress field (RSF) are examined by simulation and experiment. The influences of incidence angle ? and water jet diameter d on RSF are also investigated by simulation. Results show that compressive RS ?crs is a result of the action of water-hammer pressure alone. Furthermore, ?crs increases with an increase in p, n anda. The optimal peening parameters for Al6061-T6 are found to be p= 60MPa, vf =2000mm/min, n =4, a =90deg and d=2.0mm. Finally, the depth of compressive RS layer D0 increases greatly with an increase in water jet diameter d and can reaches 984um.
TOPICS: Shot peening, Aluminum alloys, Numerical analysis, Water, Pressure, Erosion, Simulation, Stress, Water hammer, Residual stresses, Fatigue life
research-article  
Mordechai Perl and Joseph Perry
J. Pressure Vessel Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4039072
During the firing of guns, the barrel undergoes two major damaging processes: wear of its inner surface, and internal cracking. Barrel's are condemned based either on the increase of their internal diameter due to wear, or the severity of their internal cracking. The cost of replacing such a damaged gun barrel runs in the tenth of thousands of US$. Therefore, cost effective methods are sought for restoring such gun barrels. In the present analysis a new method is proposed for refurbishing vintage gun barrels by machining their inner damaged layer and replacing it by an intact, autofrettaged, shrink-fit liner that will restore the barrel to its original performance. The design of the shrink-fitted liner is based on two design principles. First, the von-Mises residual stress distribution through the thickness of the barrel at each of its cross sections along the inserted liner, should be at least equal in magnitude to von Misses stress, which prevailed in the original barrel. Second, once the maximum pressure is applied to the compound barrel, the von-Mises stresses at the inner surfaces of the liner machined barrel should be equal to their respective yield stresses. The preliminary results demonstrate the ability of this process to mend such barrels and bringing them back to their initial Safe Maximum Pressure (SMP) and their intact conditions, rather than condemn them. Furthermore, from the authors experience, based on a preliminary rough estimate, such an alternative seems to be cost effective.
TOPICS: Autofrettage, Gun barrels, Stress, Pressure, Wear, Cracking (Materials), Design, Fracture (Process), Firing, Yield stress, Machining, Surface roughness, Cross section (Physics), Stress concentration, Guns
research-article  
Caiming Liu, Dunji Yu, Waseem Akram and Xu Chen
J. Pressure Vessel Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4039073
In this study, the ratcheting behaviors of pressurized Z2CN18.10 austenitic stainless steel elbow pipe influenced by the thermal aging process were experimentally investigated in controlled constant internal pressure and reversed in-plane bending after different thermal aging periods (1000h and 2000h) at thermal aging temperature of 500oC. It is shown that the ratcheting behavior of pressured elbow pipe is highly affected by the thermal aging process. The evaluation of ratcheting behavior of pressured elbow pipe was performed using Chen-Jiao-Kim (CJK) kinematic hardening model as a user subroutine of ANSYS. The relationships of yield stress and multiaxial parameter with and thermal aging time were proposed. Ratcheting shakedown boundary of aged elbow pipe was evaluated by CJK model with thermal aging time.
TOPICS: Pipes, Stainless steel, Yield stress, Kinematics, Pressure, Temperature, Hardening
research-article  
Yonghee Ryu, Abhinav Gupta and Ju Bu Seog
J. Pressure Vessel Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4039004
Many studies assessing the damage from 1971 San Fernando and 1994 North Ridge earthquakes reported that the failure of non-structural components like piping systems was one of the significant reasons for shutdown of hospitals immediately after the earthquakes. This paper is focused on evaluating seismic fragility of a large-scale piping system in representative high-rise, mid-rise, and low-rise buildings using nonlinear time history analyses. The emphasis is on evaluating piping's interaction with building and its effect on piping fragility. The building models include the effects of nonlinearity in the performance of beams and columns. In the 20-story building that is detuned with the piping system, critical locations are on the top two floors for the linear frame building model. For the nonlinear building model, critical locations are on the bottom two floors. In the 8-story building that is nearly tuned with the piping system, the critical locations for both the linear frame and nonlinear models are the 3rd and 4th floors. It is observed that building nonlinearity can reduce fragility due to reduction in the tuning between building and piping systems. In the 2-story building, the nonlinear building frequencies are closer to the critical piping system frequencies than the linear building frequency; the nonlinear building is more fragile than the linear building for this case. However, it is observed that the linear building models give excessively conservative estimates of fragility than the nonlinear building models.
TOPICS: Structures, Pipes, Piping systems, Earthquakes, Failure, Damage
research-article  
Xu Liang, Zeng Cao, Hongyue Sun, Xing Zha and Jianxing Leng
J. Pressure Vessel Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4038724
An analytical method and a semi-analytical method are proposed to analyze the dynamic thermo-elastic behavior of structures resting on a Pasternak foundation. The analytical method employs a finite Fourier integral transform and its inversion, as well as a Laplace transform and its numerical inversion. The semi-analytical method employs the state space method, the differential quadrature method (DQM) and the numerical inversion of the Laplace transform. To demonstrate the two methods, a simply-supported Euler-Bernoulli beam of variable length is considered. The governing equations of the beam are derived using Hamilton's principle. A comparison between the results of analytical method and the results of semi-analytical method is carried out, and it is shown that the results of the two methods generally agree with each other, sometimes almost perfectly. A comparison of natural frequencies between the semi-analytical method and the experimental data from relevant literature shows good agreements between the two kinds of results, and and the semi-analytical method is validated. Different numbers of sampling points along the axial direction are used to carry out convergence study. It is found that the semi-analytical method converges rapidly. The effects of different beam lengths and heights, thermal stress, and the spring and shear coefficients of the Pasternak medium are also investigated. The results obtained in this paper can serve as benchmark in further research.
TOPICS: Thermoelasticity, Laplace transforms, Springs, Shear (Mechanics), Thermal stresses, Hamilton's principle
research-article  
Enrico Deri
J. Pressure Vessel Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4038725
Flow-induced vibrations of tubes in two-phase heat exchangers are a concern for the nuclear industry. EDF has developed a numerical tool, which allows one to evaluate safety margins and thereafter to optimize the exchanger maintenance policy. The software is based on a semi analytical model of fluid-dynamic forces and dimensionless fluid force coefficients which need to be evaluated by experiment. A test rig was operated with the aim of assessing parallel triangular tube arrangement submitted to a two-phase vertical cross-flow: a kernel of nine flexible tubes is set in the middle of a rigid bundle. These tubes vibrate as solid bodies (in translation) both in the lift and drag directions in order to represent the so-called in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations. This paper presents some extended physical analysis applied to some selected points of the aforementioned experiment series: the response modes are identified by means of operational modal analysis (i.e. under unmeasured flow excitation) and presented in terms of frequency, damping and mode shapes. Among all the modes theoretically possible in the bundle, it was found that some of them have a higher response depending on the flow velocity and the void fraction. Mode shapes allow to argue if lock-in is present and to clarify the role of lift and drag forces close to the fluidelastic instability.
TOPICS: Cross-flow, Modal analysis, Flow (Dynamics), Drag (Fluid dynamics), Mode shapes, Fluid-dynamic forces, Damping, Flow-induced vibrations, Heat exchangers, Vibration, Computer software, Porosity, Fluids, Locks (Waterways), Maintenance, Safety, Excitation, Nuclear industry
Technology Review  
Kyle Gough and Daniel Peters
J. Pressure Vessel Technol   doi: 10.1115/1.4037197
Layered vessels have been in-service for many years which use layered construction. This construction technique has been employed since the 1930's. This generally involved either concentric plates or spirally wrapped plates to manufacture vessels with thick walls that otherwise would require very thick and heavy forgings. Long term asset management of these vessels, including non-destructive evaluation of the vessels welds and life assessment of the vessels due to operational cycling the vessels experience can be challenging. This paper is meant to address some of the challenges in managing these critical assets and provide a discussion on the application of state of the art techniques which are being applied today.
TOPICS: Design, Vessels, Fitness-for-service, Plates (structures), Construction, Nondestructive evaluation, Forgings (Products), Welded joints

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