Analysis and Optimization of Bellows With General Shape

[+] Author and Article Information
B. K. Koh

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha Technical Junior College, 253 Yonghyun-Dong, Nam-Gu, Inchon, Korea 402-752

G. J. Park

Department of Mechanical Design and Production Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-Dong, Sungdong-Gu, Seoul, Korea 133-791

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 120(4), 325-333 (Nov 01, 1998) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2842339 History: Received May 01, 1996; Revised April 15, 1998; Online February 11, 2008


A bellows is a component in piping systems which absorbs mechanical deformation with flexibility. Its geometry is an axially symmetric shell which consists of two toroidal shells and one annular plate or conical shell. In order to analyze the bellows, this study presents the finite element analysis using a conical frustum shell element. A finite element analysis program is developed to analyze various bellows. The formula for calculating the natural frequency of bellows is made by the simple beam theory. The formula for fatigue life is also derived by experiments. A shape optimal design problem is formulated using multiple objective optimization. The multiple objective functions are transformed to a scalar function with weighting factors. The stiffness, strength, and specified stiffness are considered as the multiple objective function. The formulation has inequality constraints imposed on the natural frequencies, the fatigue limit, and the manufacturing conditions. Geometric parameters of bellows are the design variables. The recursive quadratic programming algorithm is utilized to solve the problem.

Copyright © 1998 by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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