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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Leak-Before-Break: What Does It Really Mean?

[+] Author and Article Information
Gery Wilkowski

Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus, 3518 Riverside Drive, Suite 202, Columbus, OH 43221e-mail: gwilkows@columbus.rr.com

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 122(3), 267-272 (Mar 05, 2000) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.556183 History: Received February 01, 2000; Revised March 05, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Irwin, G. R., 1963, “Fracture of Pressure Vessels,” Materials for Missiles and Spacecraft, pp. 204–229, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Kobayashi,  A. S., Zii,  M., and Hall,  L. R., 1965, “Approximate Stress Intensity Factor for an Embedded Elliptical Crack Near Two Parallel Free Surfaces,” Int. J. Frac. Mech., 1, pp. 81–95.
Folias, E. S., 1964, “The Stresses in a Cylindrical Shell Containing an Axial Crack,” ARL 64-174, Aerospace Research Laboratories, Oct.
Pellini, W. S., 1969, Evolution of Engineering Principles for Fracture-Safe Design of Steel Structures, Naval Research Laboratory Report NRL 6957, September 23.
Milne, I., et al., 1986, “Assessment of the Integrity of Structures Containing Defects,” CEGB Report R/H/R6-Revision 3.
Kiefner, J. F., et al., 1973, “Failure Stress Levels of Flaws in Pressurized Cylinders,” Progress in Flaw Growth and Fracture Toughness Testing, ASTM STP 536, American Society for Testing and Materials, pp. 461–481.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 1995, Section XI, Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components, Article IWB-3600, July.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 1984, B31G “Manual for Determining the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines.”
Kussmaul, K., et al., 1985, “Phänomenologische Behälterberstversuche—Phase I,” BMFT Report BMFT-TB-1500 279, by MPA-Stuttgart, July.
Bryan, R. H., Bolt, S. E., Merkle, J. G., and Whitman, 1982, “Quick-Look Report on Test of Intermediate Vessel V-8a—Tearing Behavior of Lower Upper,” ORNL/SST-4, Oakridge National Laboratory, Aug.
Proc. IAEA, 1983, Theoretical and Experimental Work on LMFBR Steam Generator Integrity and Reliability with a Particular Reference to Leak Development and Detection, IAEA Document IWGFR/50, Nov.
Moan,  G. D., Coleman,  C. E., Price,  E. G., Rodgers,  D. K., and Sagat,  S., 1990, “Leak-Before-Break in the Pressure Tubes of CANDU Reactors,” Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping, 43, pp. 1–21.
Pierce, W., 1970, “Effects of Surface and Through Cracks on Failure of Pressurized Thin-Walled Cylinders of 2014-T6 Aluminum,” NASA Report TN D6099, Nov.
Eiber, R. J., Maxey, W. A., and Duffy, A. R., 1971, “Fracture Investigation of Pipe for LNG Service,” Battelle report to A.G.A. on Project PR-3-42, Dec.
Rana,  M. D., 1987, “Experimental Verification of Fracture Toughness Requirements for Leak-Before-Break Performance for 155–175 ksi Strength Level Gas Cylinders,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 109, Nov., pp. 435–439.
Wilkowski,  G. M., and Eiber,  R. J., 1981, “Evaluation of Tensile Failure of Girth Weld Repair Grooves in Pipe Subjected to Offshore Laying Stresses,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 103, Mar., pp. 48–57.
Solicitation for Public Comment on Standard Review Plan 3.6.3, 1987, “Leak-Before-Break Evaluation Procedures,” Federal Register, Vol. 52, No. 167, August 28.
Wilkowski,  G. M., Zahoor,  A., and Kanninen,  M. F., 1981, “A Plastic Fracture Mechanics Prediction of Fracture Instability in a Circumferentially Cracked Pipe in Bending—Part II: Experimental Verification on a Type 304 Stainless Steel Pipe,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 103, Nov., pp. 359–365.
Wilkowski, G. M., and Kramer, G., 1989, “An Energy Balance Approach to Estimate the Initiation and Arrest of Ductile Fracture Instability in Circumferentially Cracked Pipe,” ASME PVP-Vol. 167, July, pp. 103–114.
Olson, R., Wolterman, R., Scott, P., Krishnaswamy, P., and Wilkowski, G., 1994, “The Next Generation Methodology for Cracked Pipe System Subjected to Dynamic Loads,” ASME PVP-Vol. 275-1, June, pp. 159–172.
Hopper, A. T., Wilkowski, G. M., Scott, P. M., Olson, R. O., Rudland, D., Kilinski, T., Mohan, R., Ghadiali, N., and Paul, D., 1997, “The Second International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-2) Program—Final Report,” NUREG/CR-6452, Feb.
Wilkowski, G. M., Olson, R. J., and Scott, P. M., 1998, “State-of-the-Art Report on Piping Fracture Mechanics,” U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission report NUREG/CR-6540, BMI-2196, Feb.
Harris, D. O., Lim, E. Y., and Dedhia, D. D., 1981, “Probability of Pipe Fracture in the Primary Coolant Loop of a PWR Plant,” NUREG/CR-2189, Vol. 5, Aug.
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Figures

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LEFM LBB approach by Irwin 1
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LEFM LBB model with Kobayashi surface flaw improvement
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Pellini failure analysis diagram
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Examples of failure modes at Pellini reference temperatures—(a) Service failure at NDT; (b) arrested hydrostatic burst (FTE+20F); (c) pneumatic burst at FTP
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LBB analysis from Battelle relationships using limit-load equations
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Experiment with 70-percent deep circumferential groove in a pipe under bending which exhibited load-controlled LBB behavior
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Circumferential blunt flaw LBB criterion 13
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J/T stability analysis procedure
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Circumferential through-wall-cracked TP304 pipe experiment under compliant displacement-controlled loading to validate J/T analysis 15
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Experimental records of limited instability and total instability of circumferential surface flaws in TP304 pipe
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Energy balance analysis 15 showing how surface to through-wall crack transition is predicted, as well as stability under combined load-controlled and displacement-controlled stresses
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Schematic of how to create a cracked pipe element for dynamic LBB analysis
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Illustration of pipe system used in IPIRG program to assess crack stability under seismic loading at LWR temperatures
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Comparison of cracked-pipe element analysis and pipe system experimental data from the IPIRG program 21

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