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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Life Management of High-Temperature Piping and Tubing in Fossil Power Plants

[+] Author and Article Information
R. Viswanathan

Electric Power Research Institute, 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1395

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 122(3), 305-316 (Apr 05, 2000) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.556187 History: Received February 01, 2000; Revised April 05, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

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Wells, C. H., and Viswanathan, R., 1993, “Life Assessment of High Energy Piping,” Technology for the 90s, Au-Yang, M. K., et al., eds., ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division, New York, NY, pp. 179–216.
Viswanathan, R., and Stringer, J. T., 2000, “Failure Mechanisms of High Temperature Components in Power Plants,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., in press.
Viswanathan, R., and Porter, R. W., eds., 1995, “Symposium on Life Assessment Technology for a Competitive World,” American Power Conference, 54-III , Chicago, IL.
Chan, W., McQueen, R. L., Prince, J., and Sidey, D., 1991, “Metallurgical Experiences with High Temperature Piping in Ontario Hydro,” ASME PVP-Vol. 21 , Service Experience in Operating Plants, New York, NY.
Ellis, F. V., et al., 1988, Remaining Life Assessment of Boiler Pressure Parts, Final Report RP 2253-1, Vol. 1–5, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA.
Ellis, F., and Viswanathan, R., 1998, “Review of Type IV Cracking in Welds,” ASME PVP-Vol. 380 , Fitness for Service Evaluation in Petroleum and Fossil Plants, pp. 59–76.
Viswanathan, R., and Foulds, J., 1995, “Failure Experience with Seam-Welded Hot Reheat Pipes in the USA,” ASME PVP-Vol. 303 , Service Experience, Structural Integrity, Severe Accidents and Erosion in Nuclear and Fossil Plants, Paterson, S. R., et al., eds., New York, NY, pp. 187–207.
Foulds, J. R., Viswanathan, J. L., and Walker, S. L., 1995, Guidelines for the Evaluation of Seam Welded High Energy Piping, Report TR-104631, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA.
Sullivan, D., Prager, M., and Lundin, C. H., 1999, “Performance of Welded Steam Piping—Fact and Fiction,” Fitness for Service Evaluation in Petroleum and Fossil Power Plants, Saks, M., and Prager, M., eds., ASME PVP-Vol. 380 , pp. 371–375.
Sullivan, P., and Rafkin, K., 1999, “Strategy for High Energy Piping Evaluation,” Fitness for Service Evaluation in Petroleum and Fossil Power Plants, Saks, M., and Prage, M., eds., ASME PVP-Vol. 380 , pp. 375–381.
Henry, J. F., et al., “Failure Investigation of Longitudinal Seam Welded Elevated Temperature Header,” Microstructural Science, Vol. 15 , Blum, M. E., et al., eds., ASM International, pp. 150–169.
Hickey, J. J., et al., 1995, “Investigation and Repair of a Failed Seam Welded Reheat Outlet Header,” Proc., Welding and Repair Technology for Power Plants, Daytona Beach, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, May.
Sullivan, D., and Bisbee, L., 1999, “Advances in Inspection of Welded High Temperature Piping,” Fitness for Service Evaluation in Petroleum and Fossil Power Plants, Saks, M., and Prager, M., eds., ASME PVP-Vol. 380 , pp. 205–219.
Neubauer, B., and Wedel, V., 1983, “Rest Life Estimation of Creeping Components by Means of Replicas,” Advances in Life Prediction Methods, Woodford, D. A., and Whitehead, J. R., eds., ASME, New York, NY, p. 307.
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Viswanathan, R., 1998, Guidelines for the Evaluation of Seam-Welded High-Energy Piping—An Executive Summary of Current Approaches, Report TR-111380, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA.
Jasper,  H., Mayer,  H., and Remmert,  H., 1985, “Creep Damage on Pipework Following Long Periods,” VGB Kraftwerk., 65, No. 2, pp. 165–173.
Foulds, J. R., and Viswanathan, R., 1993, “Graphitization of Steels in Elevated Temperature Service,” Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Aging Materials, Liaw, P. K., et al., eds., The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society.
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Viswanathan,  R., , 1994, “Life Assessment of Superheater/Reheater Tubes in Fossil Boilers,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 116, pp. 1–16.
Gandy,  D. W., Findlan,  S. J., and Viswanathan,  R., 2000, “Weld Repair of Casings and Piping—An Industry Survey,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 122, pp. 1–10.
Viswanathan,  R., and Gandy,  D., 2000, “Weld Repair of Aged Cr-Mo Steel Piping—A Review of Literature,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 122, Feb., pp. 76–85.
Viswanathan,  R., Gandy,  D., and Findlan,  S., 2000, “Weld Repair of 1-1/4Cr-1/2Mo Steel Piping Girth Welds,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 122, Feb., pp. 76–85.
Viswanathan,  R., and Gandy,  D. W., 1999, “Weld Repair of 2-1/4Cr-1Mo Service-Aged Header Welds,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 121, pp. 345–351.
Viswanathan,  R., and Gandy,  D. W., 1999, “Performance of Repair Welds on Aged Cr-Mo Piping Girth Welds, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 8, No. 5, pp. 579–590.
Viswanathan,  R., Gandy,  D. W., and Findlan,  S., 1997, “Performance of Weld Repairs on Service Aged 2-1/4Cr-1Mo Girth Weldments,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 119, pp. 1–9.
Viswanathan, R., and Gehl, S. M., 1992, “Effect of Aging on the Creep Rupture Behavior of Steels,” First International Conference Proceedings, Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Aging Materials, Liaw, P. K., et al., eds., TMS-AIME, Warrendale, PA, pp. 35–41.
Viswanathan,  R., and Foulds,  J., 1998, “Accelerated Stress Rupture Testing for Creep Life Prediction—Its Value and Limitations,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 120, pp. 105–115.
Viswanathan, R., 1995, “Life Assessment Technology for Fossil Power Plants,” Symposium on Life Assessment Technology for a Competitive World, American Power Conf., 57-III , Viswanathan, R., and Porter, R. W., eds., Chicago, IL.
Viswanathan, R., and Bernstein, H., 1996, “Some Issues in Creep-Fatigue Life Prediction of Fossil Power Plant Components,” Service Experience and Design in Pressure Vessels and Piping, Barnford, W., ed., ASME PVP-Vol. 335 , pp. 99–109.
Jaske, C. E., and Viswanathan, R., 2000, Use of Miniature Specimens for Creep Crack Growth Testing, ASME PVP, Seattle, WA.
Saxena, A., Han, J., and Banerji, K., 1988, Creep Crack Growth in Boiler and Steam Pipe Steels, RS-5583, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA.
Saxena, A., and Gieseke, B., 1987, “Transients in Elevated Temperature Crack Growth,” Proc., MECAMAT, International Seminar on High Temperature Fracture Mechanism and Mechanics, Vol. 3 , pp. 19–36.
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Yoon, K. B., Saxena, A., and McDowell, D. L., 2000, “Influence of Crack tip Cyclic Plasticity on Creep-Fatigue Crack Growth,” 22nd ASTM National Symposium on Fracture Mechanics, ASTM, Philadelphia, PA.
Saxena, A., and Bassani, J. L., 1984, “Time-Dependent Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior at Elevated Temperature,” Fracture Interaction of Microstructure, Mechanisms and Mechanics, the Met. Society, Warrendale, PA, pp. 357–383.

Figures

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Schematic illustration of an elevated temperature header
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Four types of damage in girth welds in relation to microstructure 5
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Micrograph showing creep crack initiation at a cusp in the weld followed by propagation along the fusion line towards the inside diameter of a seam-welded hot reheat pipe
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Creep life assessment based on cavity classification 15
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Correlation between damage classification and expected creep-life fraction for 1-1/4Cr-1/2 Mo steel
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Graphical summary of the best-fit TTT curves for various weld HAZ graphitization levels 21
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Example of “ligament cracking” at the tube borehole of a high-temperature header
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Photomicrograph (500) of the oxide notch at the ligament cracks
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Expended life fraction under service conditions versus the remaining life fraction as determined from post-exposure accelerated tests for three heats of steel 3335
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2-1/4Cr-1Mo rupture data showing UTS dependence 2335
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Creep-crack-growth-rate for the base metal of the 2-1/4Cr-1Mo steel plate at 538°C (1000°F) obtained using miniature specimens 37
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Comparison of scatterbands from all available ex-service HAZ/FL

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