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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Shallow Flaws Under Biaxial Loading Conditions—Part I: The Effect of Specimen Size on Fracture Toughness Values Obtained From Large-Scale Cruciform Specimens

[+] Author and Article Information
Wallace J. McAfee, B. Richard Bass, Paul T. Williams

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831e-mail: w2m@ornl.gov

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 123(1), 10-24 (Oct 23, 2000) (15 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1343910 History: Received January 01, 2000; Revised October 23, 2000
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References

Theiss,  T. H., and Shum,  D. K. M., 1992, “Experimental and Analytical Investigation of the Shallow-Flaw Effect in Reactor Pressure Vessels,” USNRC Report NUREG/CR-5886 (ORNL/TM-12115), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.
Dickson, T. L., McAfee, W. J., Pennell, W. E., and Williams, P. T., 1998, “Evaluation of Margins in the ASME Rules for Defining the P-T Curve for a RPV,” Proc. Twenty-Sixth Water Reactor Safety Meeting, NUREG/CP-0166, Vol. 1, pp. 47–72.
Link,  R. E., and Joyce,  J. A., 1996, “Application of Fracture Toughness Scaling Models to the Ductile-to-Brittle Transition,” USNRC Report NUREG/CR-6279, U.S. Naval Academy.
Bass B. R., Keeney J. A., and McAfee W. J., 1995, “Assessment of the Fracture Behavior of Weld Material from a Full-Thickness Clad RPV Shell Segment,” Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics in Pressure Vessels and Piping, ASME PVP-Vol. 304, pp. 299–311.
Theiss, T. J., et al., 1994, “Initial Results of the Influence of Biaxial Loading on Fracture Toughness,” USNRC Report NUREG/CR-6132 (ORNL/TM-12498), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.
McAfee, W. J., Bass, B. R., Bryson, J. W., Jr., and Pennell, W. E., 1995, “Biaxial Loading Effects on Fracture Toughness of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel,” USNRC Report NUREG/CR-6273 (ORNL/TM-12866), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.
Pennell, W. E., Bass, B. R., Bryson, J. W., Jr., Dickson, T. L., and Merkle, J. G., 1996, “Preliminary Assessment of the Effects of Biaxial Loading on Reactor Pressure Vessel Structural-Integrity-Assessment Technology,” Proc., 4th ASME/JSME International Conference in Nuclear Engineering, New Orleans, LA.
McAfee, W. J., Bass, B. R., and Bryson, J. W., Jr., 1997, “Development of a Methodology for the Assessment of Shallow-Flaw Fracture in Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessels: Generation of Biaxial Shallow-Flaw Fracture Toughness Data,” ORNL/NRC/LTR-97/4, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.
Bass, B. R., McAfee, W. J., Williams, P. T., and Pennell, W. E., 1998, “Evaluation of Constraint Methodologies Applied to a Shallow-Flaw Cruciform Bend Specimen Tested Under Biaxial Loading Conditions,” Fatigue, Fracture, and High Temperature Design Methods in Pressure Vessels and Piping, ASME PVP-Vol. 365, pp. 11–25.
McAfee,  W. J., and Pennell,  W. E., 1996, “Development of Heat-Treating Specification for Surrogate Irradiated Base Material,” Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program Semiannual Progress Report for October 1994-March 1995, USNRC Report NUREG/CR-4219 (ORNL/TM-9593/V12&N1), Vol. 12, No. 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, p. 5.
Nanstad,  R. K., , 1992, “Irradiation Effects on Fracture Toughness of Two High-Copper Submerged-Arc Welds, HSSI Series 5,” USNRC Report NUREG/CR-5913 (ORNL/TM-12156/V1), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.
ASTM Standard E 1921-97, 1998, “Test Method for the Determination of Reference Temperature, T0, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range,” ASTM Standard Vol. 03.01, Section 3.
Kirk, M. T., and Dodds, R. H., Jr., 1992, “Experimental and Analytical Investigation of the Shallow-Flaw Effect in Reactor Pressure Vessels,” NUREG/CR-5886 (ORNL/TM-12115).
ABAQUS Theory Manual, 1993, Version 5.3, Hibbitt, Karlson, and Sorenson, Inc., Providence, RI.
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 1989, Section XI, “Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components,” Appendix A, “Analysis of Flaws,” Article A-4000, Material Properties, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, NY.
Kirk, M. T., Koppenhoefer, K. C., and Shih, C. F., 1993, “Effect of Constraint on Specimen Dimensions Needed to Obtain Structurally Relevant Toughness Measures,” Constraint Effects in Fracture, ASTM STP 1171, E. M. Hackett, K.-H. Schwalbe, and R. H. Dodds, eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, , pp. 79–103.
Smith, J. A., and Rolfe, S. T., 1997, “Report No. 3 C - The Significance of Crack Depth (a ) and Crack Depth to Width Ratio (a/W) With Respect to the Behavior of Very large Specimens,” Constraint Effects on Fracture Behavior, WRC Bulletin 418, Welding Research Council, New York, NY, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS.

Figures

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PTS loading produces biaxial stress in an RPV wall with one of the principal stresses aligned parallel with the tip of the constant-depth shallow-surface flaw
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Conceptual features of the cruciform shallow-flaw biaxial fracture toughness test specimen
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Results for validation matrix tests of high-yield strength material showing dependence of fracture toughness on temperature and biaxial loading
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Biaxial loading effects on shallow-flaw fracture toughness of high-yield strength A 533 B steel showing reduction in toughness with increasing load ratio; test temperature=23°F(−5°C)
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Comparison of Charpy curves from heat-treated Plate 14 material with that from irradiated 73W material
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Tensile properties of heat-treated Plate 14 over temperature range −22°F (−30°C) to 140°F (60°C)
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Tensile properties of heat-treated Plate 14 are relatively independent of location through plate thickness [test temperature=RTNDT=104°F(40°C)]
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Master curve generated using fracture toughness data from 1/2T compact tension specimens tested at −22°F (−30°C); heat-treated Plate 14 material
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Master curve generated using fracture toughness data from 1/2T compact tension specimens tested at −202°F≤T≤70°F(−130°C≤T≤21°C); heat-treated Plate 14 material
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Plate cut-up plan for large-scale cruciform beam specimen blanks showing locations relative to intermediate-scale specimens (all dimensions in mm)
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Schematic of large-size cruciform beam EB weld development block
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Schematic of EB weld demonstration assembly
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General setup for EB welding large-size cruciform specimens
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Cross section of bead-on-plate EB welds make to develop parameters for large-scale cruciform beams
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Comparison of intermediate-scale and large-scale cruciform beam test sections in uniaxial configuration
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Large-scale cruciform beam after completion of EB welding
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Comparison of calculated moment versus KJ for intermediate-size and large-size cruciform specimens under biaxial (1:1) loading showing impact of single, high toughness result from intermediate-size cruciform specimen
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Comparison of calculated moment versus KJ for original design and reduced thickness large-size cruciform specimens under biaxial (1:1) loading showing result of reducing test section thickness
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Large-scale, 2-D flaw cruciform specimen showing details of reduced test section
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Large-scale PLS1 mounted in test fixture before testing
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Measured CMOD for failure test of shallow-flaw, large-scale cruciform Specimen PLS1: load ratio=1:1, test temperature=28.4°F (−2°C)
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Measured CMOD for failure test of shallow-flaw, large-scale cruciform Specimen PLS2: load ratio=1:1, test temperature=31.6°F (0°C)
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Measured CMOD for failure test shallow-flaw, large-scale cruciform Specimen PLS3: load ratio=1:1, test temperature=33.2°F (0.7°C)
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Measured CMOD for failure test of shallow-flaw, large-scale cruciform Specimen PLS4: load ratio=1:1, test temperature=31.2°F (−0.5°C)
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Comparison of measured centerline CMOD for failure test of shallow-flaw, large-scale cruciform specimens
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Test section of shallow-flaw, large-scale cruciform Specimen PLS1 after failure
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Initial loading segment of measured CMOD for failure test of shallow-flaw, large-scale cruciform Specimen PLS2: load ratio=1:1, test temperature 31.6°F (0°C)
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Fracture surface for large-scale 2-D flaw cruciform specimen PLS-1
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Fracture surface for large-scale 2-D flaw cruciform specimen PLS-2
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Fracture surface for large-scale 2-D cruciform specimen PLS-3
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Fracture surface for large-scale 2-D flaw cruciform specimen PLS-4
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Finite element model used for analysis of large-scale 2-D flaw cruciform fracture sprecimens
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Finite element analysis results comparing applied moment-predicted CMOD for large-scale 2-D flaw cruciform specimens with different test section configurations under biaxial (1:1) loading
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Finite element analysis results showing development of K at flaw center for large-scale 2-D flaw cruciform specimens with different test section configurations under biaxial (1:1) loading
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Typical load-CMOD trace for large-scale 2-D flaw cruciform specimen tests showing bilinear characteristic of initial loading curve
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Finite element model of test section showing method for applying residual stress
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Finite-element model of test section showing method for applying residual stress
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Comparison of applied moment versus CMOD results from finite element analysis including effects of residual stress with experimental measurements from large-scale 2-D flaw cruciform specimens under biaxial (1:1) loading
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Results from large-scale (5.5-in. (140-mm) thick) 2-D flaw cruciform specimens show reduced toughness compared to intermediate-scale specimens (4-in. (102-mm) thick); large-scale specimen results have been offset to PT/PL=1.05
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The effect of biaxial loading on large-scale cruciform specimens of the heat treated Plate 14 material is to reduce the slope of the fracture toughness curve through the lower transition temperature region
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Comparison of intermediate-scale size-adjusted biaxial data with large-scale biaxial data and 1/2T C(T) data. All results are for heat-treated Plate 14 material tested in the range of −5°C to 0°C.

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