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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Estimates of Crack-Driving Force in Surface-Cracked Elbows

[+] Author and Article Information
Gery M. Wilkowski

Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus, Hilliard, OH 43026e-mail: gwilkows@columbus.rr.com

Raj Mohan

Rouge Steel Company, Dearborn, MI 48121e-mail: rmohan@rougesteel.com

Thomas J. Kilinski

Battelle, Columbus, OH 43201e-mail: kilinski@battelle.org

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 123(1), 32-40 (Jan 20, 2000) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1343456 History: Revised January 20, 2000; Received October 18, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Mohan, R., Brust, F. W., Ghadiali, N., and Wilkowski, G. M., 1996, “Development of a J-Estimation Scheme for Internal Circumferential and Axial Surface Cracks in Elbows,” NUREG/CR-6445, BMI-2193.
Kilinski, T., Mohan, R., Rudland, D., Fleming, M., Olson, R., Scott, P., Brust, F., Ghadiali, N., Wilkowski, G., and Hopper, A., 1996, “Fracture Behavior of Circumferentially Surface-Cracked Elbows,” NUREG/CR-6444, BMI-2192.
Kussmaul, K., Diem, H., Roos, E., and Uhlmann, D., 1989, “Geometry Influence on the Location of Incipient Cracking of Pipe Bends Under In-Plane Bending,” Proc., 3rd International Conference on Biaxial Multiaxial Fatigue, Stuttgart, Germany.
Folias,  E. S., 1965, “An Axial Crack in a Pressurized Cylinder Shell,” Int. J. Fract. Mech., 2, No. 1, pp. 104–113.
Folias,  E. S., 1969, “On the Effect of Initial Curvature on Cracked Flat Sheets,” Int. J. Fract. Mech., 5, No. 4, pp. 327–346.
Kiefner,  J. F., Maxey,  W. A., Eiber,  R. J., and Duffey,  A. R., 1973, “Failure Stress Levels of Flaws in Pressurized Cylinders,” Progress in Flaw Growth and Fracture Toughness Testing, ASTM Spec. Tech. Publ., 536, pp. 461–481.
Eiber,  R. J., Maxey,  W. A., and Duffey,  A. R., 1971, “Investigation of the Initiation and Extent of Ductile Pipe Rupture,” Battelle Memorial Institute Report, BMI-1908.
Folias,  E. S., 1967, “A Circumferential Crack in a Pressurized Cylindrical Shell,” Int. J. Fract. Mech., 3, pp. 1–11.
Sanders,  L. L., 1983, “Circumferential Through-Crack in a Cylindrical Shell Under Combined Bending and Tension,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 50, p. 221.
Erdogan,  F., and Kibler,  J. J., 1969, “Cylindrical and Spherical Shells with Cracks,” Int. J. Fract. Mech., 5, No. 3.
Krishnaswamy, P., Scott, P., Mohan, R., Rahman, S., Choi, Y. H., Brust F., Kilinski, T., Ghadiali, N., Marschall, C., and Wilkowski, G., 1995, “Fracture Behavior of Circumferential Short-Surface-Cracked Pipe,” NUREG /CR-6298, BMI-2183.
Kumar,  V., and German,  M. D., 1988, “Elastic-Plastic Fracture Analysis of Through-Wall and Surface Flaws in Cylinders,” EPRI Report NP-5596.
“Evaluation of Flaws in Ferritic Piping,” 1988, EPRI Report NP-6045, prepared by Novetech Corporation.
Zahoor,  A., 1989, Ductile Fracture Handbook, EPRI Report NP-6301-D, Vol. 2.
Le Delliou, P., Semete, P., and Ignaccolo, S., 1996, “Fracture Mechanics Analysis of Cast Duplex Stainless Steel Elbows Containing a Surface Crack,” Fatigue and Fracture, ASME PVP Vol. 323.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of limit-load definitions by design stress and fracture approaches
Grahic Jump Location
J versus moment calculations for axial, flank, surface crack (SC.ELB3 analysis) in an elbow and various straight-pipe circumferential crack J-estimation schemes—(a) Rm/t=5, (b) Rm/t=10, (c) Rm/t=20
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of J versus moment for circumferential, surface-cracked, straight pipe to moment for axial, flank, surface-cracked elbow at the same J-values (Mpipe/Melbow|J)
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of ASME elbow stress indices to ratio of moment for circumferential, surface-cracked, straight pipe to moment for axial, flank, surface-cracked elbow at the same J-values (Mpipe/Melbow|J)
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Comparison of EDF, axial, flank, surface-cracked elbow experiment Y6135 on an aged cast stainless steel elbow 15 to criteria developed in Fig. 4
Grahic Jump Location
J versus moment calculations for circumferential, extrados, surface crack (SC.ELB1 and SC.ELB2 analyses) in an elbow and various straight-pipe circumferential crack J-estimation schemes—(a) Rm/t=5, (b) Rm/t=10, (c) Rm/t=20
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of J versus moment for circumferential, surface-cracked, straight pipe to moment for circumferential, extrados, surface-cracked elbow at the same J-values (Mpipe/Melbow|J)—(a) using SC.ELB1 analysis, (b) using SC.ELB2 analysis
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of ASME elbow stress indices to ratio of moment for circumferential, surface-cracked, straight pipe to moment for circumferential, extrados, surface-cracked elbow at the same J-values (Mpipe/Melbow|J)—(a) using SC.ELB1 analysis, (b) using SC.ELB2 analysis
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of IPIRG-2, circumferential, extrados, surface-cracked, experiments on A106-90 and WP304L elbows to criteria developed in Fig. 8 (SC.ELB1 and SC.ELB2 analyses are virtually identical)
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Comparison of axial-flank and circumferential-extrados surface-cracked elbow failure avoidance criteria

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