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TECHNICAL PAPERS

High-Temperature Oxidation Behavior of 214Cr-1Mo Steel in Air—Part 1: Gain of Mass Kinetics and Characterization of the Oxide Scale

[+] Author and Article Information
Luiz Marino, Levi O. Bueno

Departmento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos (SP), Brazil

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 123(1), 88-96 (Oct 27, 2000) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1335499 History: Received January 01, 2000; Revised October 27, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Bradford, S. A., 1987, “Fundamentals of Corrosion in Gases,” Metals Handbook/Corrosion, 1st Edition, 13 , pp. 61–76.
Wood,  G. C., 1961, “The Oxidation of Iron-Chromium Alloys and Stainless Steels at High Temperatures,” Corros. Sci., 2, pp. 173–196.
Lai,  D., Borg,  R. J., Brabers,  M. J., Mackenzie,  J. D., and Birchenall,  C. E., 1961, “Oxidation of Iron-Chromium Alloys at 750–1025°C,” Corrosion/Nace, 17, pp. 109–116.
Mortimer,  D., and Sharp,  W. B. A., 1968, “Oxidation of Fe-Cr binary alloys,” British Corrosion J., 3, pp. 61–67.
Cox,  M. G. C., Enaney,  B., and Scott,  V. D., 1972, “A Chemical Diffusion Model for Partitioning of Transition Elements in Oxide Scales on Alloys,” Philos. Mag., 26, pp. 839–851.
Labun,  P. A., Covington,  J., Kuroda,  K., Welsch,  G., and Mitchell,  T. E., 1982, “Microstructural Investigation of the Oxidation of an Fe-3 percent Cr Alloy,” Metall. Trans. A, 13A, pp. 2103–2112.
Kahveci,  A. K., and Welsch,  G., 1983, “High Temperature Oxidation of Fe-3wt percent Cr Alloy,” Scr. Metall., 17, pp. 1211–126.
Simms,  N. J., and Little,  J. A., 1987, “High Temperature Oxidation of Fe-214Cr-1 Mo in Oxygen,” Oxid. Met., 27, pp. 283–299.
Simms,  N. J., and Little,  J. A., 1988, “Scale Growth on 214Cr-1Mo Steel,” Mater. Sci. Technol., 4, pp. 1133–1139.
Khanna,  A. S., Jha,  B. B., and Raj,  B., 1985, “Detection of Breakaway Oxidation and Spalling in the Oxide Scales of 214Cr-1Mo Steel Using Acoustic Emission Technique,” Oxid. Met., 23, pp. 159–176.
Khanna,  A. S., and Gnanamoorthy,  J. B., 1985, “Effect of Cold Work on the Oxidation Resistance of 214Cr-1Mo Steel,” Oxid. Met., 3, pp. 17–33.
Christl,  W., Rahmel,  L. A., and Schutze,  M., 1989, “Behavior of Oxide Scale on 214Cr-1Mo Steel During Thermal Cycling—Part I: Scales Formed in Oxygen and Air,” Oxid. Met., 31, pp. 1–34.
Christl,  W., Rahmel,  A., and Schutze,  M., 1989, “Behavior of Oxide Scale on 214Cr-1Mo Steel During Thermal Cycling—Part II: Scales Grown in Water Vapor,” Oxid. Met., 31, pp. 35–69.
Singh Raman,  R. K., Khanna,  A. S., Tiwari,  R. K., and Gnanamoorthy,  J. B., 1992, “Influence of Grain Size on the Oxidation Resistance of 214Cr-1Mo Steel,” Oxid. Met., 37, pp. 1–12.
Sing Raman,  R. K., Gnanamoorthy,  J. B., and Roy,  S. K., 1993, “Oxidation Behavior of 214Cr-1Mo Steel With Prior Tempering at Different Temperatures,” Oxid. Met., 40, pp. 21–36.
Bueno,  L. O., and Marino,  L., 2001, “High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of 214Cr-1Mo Steel in Air. Part 2: Scale Growth and Metal Loss Kinetics,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 123, Feb., pp. 97–104.
Bueno, L. O., Marino, L., and DeCarli, C. M., 1999, “Preliminary Results on Possible Effects of Oxidation on Creep Curves of 214Cr-1Mo Steel in Air,” Proc. COMPASS’99 Conference—Component Optimization from Materials Properties and Simulation Software, Evans, eds., W. J. et al., Chameleon Press Ltd., University of Wales, Swansea (UK), pp. 177–183.
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Figures

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Optical micrograph of the material in the as-received condition. Magnification: 400×. Etching potassium bissulfite.
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Variation of gain of mass per area as function of time for (a) 600°C, (b) 700°C, and (c) 800°C
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Variation of the Log(Δm) with Log(time). Symbols represent the experimental data and straight lines the linear regression fitting.
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Variation of Log(Kgm ) as function of inverse temperature
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Schematic cross section of oxide layers on cylindrical specimens of 214Cr-1Mo steel after oxidation in air
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Optical micrographs of the specimen exposed to 600°C during 105 h—(a) presence of the three layers, 175×; (b) detail of cavities in the magnetite layer surrounded by Fe2O3, 230×
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Optical micrographies of specimen exposed to 700°C during—(a) 308 h, 35×; (b) 1056 h, 17×
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Scanning electron micrographies—(a) specimen exposed to 700°C during 476 h, etching: Nital, 100×; (b) specimen exposed to 800°C, 40 h, no etching, 140×
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Variation in the contents of Cr, Mo, and Mn in oxide scale of specimen exposed to 800°C during 40 h
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Oxide-scale SEM fractographies of the specimen exposed to 800°C during 97 h—(a) general view of the different oxide layers, 100×; (b) detail of the internal oxide layer of the same specimen, 3000×
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Oxide-scale SEM fractographies of the specimen exposed to 800°C during 97 h—(a) view of the intermediate layer of magnetite, 500×; (b) detail of the grain structure of the stratum formed between the intermediate and external oxide layers, 1000×
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Oxide-scale SEM fractographies—(a) view of the external hematite layer after 800°C, 97 h, 1000×; (b) hematite crystals formed on the external surface after 700°C, 2.5 h, 1000×; (c) detail of previous micrography, 5000×

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