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TECHNICAL PAPERS

High-Temperature Oxidation Behavior of 214Cr-1Mo Steel in Air–Part 2: Scale Growth, Metal Loss Kinetics, and Stress Enhancement Factors During Creep Testing

[+] Author and Article Information
Levi O. Bueno, Luiz Marino

Departmento de Engenharia de Materials, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13565-905 Sao Carlos (SP), Brazil

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 123(1), 97-104 (Oct 27, 2000) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1335498 History: Received January 01, 2000; Revised October 27, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Simms,  N. J., and Little,  J. A., 1987, “High Temperature Oxidation of Fe 2 1/4Cr-1Mo in Oxygen,” Oxid. Met., 27, pp. 283–299.
Simms,  N. J., and Little,  J. A., 1988, “Scale Growth on 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo Steel,” Mater. Sci. Technol., 4, pp. 1133–1139.
Khanna,  A. S., Jha,  B. B., and Raj,  B., 1985, “Detection of Breakaway Oxidation and Spalling in the Oxide Scales of 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo Steel Using Acoustic Emission Technique,” Oxid. Met., 23, pp. 159–176.
Khanna,  A. S., and Gnanamoorthy,  J. B., 1985, “Effect of Cold Work on the Oxidation Resistance of 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo Steel,” Oxid. Met., 23, pp. 17–33.
Christl,  W., Rahmel,  A., and Schutze,  M., 1989, “Behaviour of Oxide Scale on 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo Steel During Thermal Cycling—Part I: Scales Formed in Oxygen and Air,” Oxid. Met., 31, pp. 1–34.
Christl,  W., Rahmel,  A., and Schutze,  M., 1989, “Behavior of Oxide Scale on 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo Steel During Thermal Cycling—Part II: Scales Grown in Water Vapor,” Oxid. Met., 31, pp. 35–69.
Singh Raman,  R. K., Khanna,  A. S., Tiwari,  R. K., and Gnanamoorthy,  J. B., 1992, “Influence of Grain Size on the Oxidation Resistance of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo Steel,” Oxid. Met., 37, pp. 1–12.
Sing Raman,  R. K., Gnanamoorthy,  J. B., and Roy,  S. K., 1993, “Oxidation Behavior of 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo Steel With Prior Tempering at Different Temperatures,” Oxid. Met., 40, pp. 21–36.
Paterson, S. R., and Rettig, T. W., 1987, “Remaining Life Estimation of Boiler Pressure Parts—2 1/4 Cr-1Mo Superheater and Reheater Tubes,” Technical Report, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA.
Viswanathan, R., 1993, “Damage Mechanisms and Life Assessment of High-Temperature Components,” ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio, pp. 183–263.
Marino,  L., and Bueno,  L. O., 2001, “High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo Steel in Air. Part 1: Gain of Mass Kinetics and Characterization of the Oxide Scale,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 123, Feb, pp. 88–96.
Bueno, L. O., Marino, L., and DeCarli, C. M., 1999, “Preliminary Results on Possible Effects of Oxidation on Creep Curves of 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo Steel in Air,” Proc COMPASS’99 Conference—Component Optimization from Materials Properties and Simulation Software, eds., W. J. Evans et al., Chamaleon Press Ltd., University of Wales, Swansea, UK, pp. 177–183.
Parker, J. D., 1998, private communication.
Surman,  P. L., and Castle,  J. E., 1969, “Gas Phase Transport in Oxidation of Fe and Steel,” Corros. Sci., 9, p. 771.
Murphy,  M. C., and Branch,  G. D., 1971, “Metallurgical changes in 2.25 CrMo Steels During Creep-Rupture Tests,” J. Iron Steel Inst., London, 209, pp. 546–561.

Figures

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Schematic view of the cross section of the cylindrical specimens after oxidation
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Correlation between metal loss thickness and oxide scale thickness—(a) showing linear regression through the data; (b) log×log plot data from the general linear trend
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Variation of scale thickness with time—(a) 600°C; (b) 700°C; (c) 800°C
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Variation of the coefficient of oxide-scale growth thickness with inverse temperature
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(a) Oxide thickness versus time data with the parabolic fit at temperatures from 700 to 850°C. The data at 600°C is shown with the logarithmic fitting only; (b) same data in log×log scale.
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Variation of the metal loss with oxidation time—(a) 600°C; (b) 700°C; (c) 800°C; curves represent potential fit through the data
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Variation of the coefficient for metal loss thickness with inverse temperature
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(a) Variation of the metal loss thickness with time, using the parabolic relation; (b) same data in log×log plot
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(a) Oxide-scale thickness results at 600°C compared to Simms and Little 2 data on dry flowing oxygen; (b) metal loss due to oxidation measured by Murphy and Branch 15 on shoulders of crept specimens at 593°C, compared to parabolic data of the present work
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Comparison of the data obtained in this work with data from other publication on metal loss thickness of 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel after oxidation at high temperatures, but in steam environment
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Reduction of the resisting cross-sectional area with time for cylindrical specimens
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Factor of stress enhancement due to oxidation during constant load creep testing on 6.5-mm-dia specimens. Solid lines represent curves obtained by extrapolation of the parabolic equations for metal loss from 550 to 850°C.

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