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TECHNICAL PAPERS

EMAT-Based Inspection of Concrete-Filled Steel Pipes for Internal Voids and Inclusions

[+] Author and Article Information
Won-Bae Na

Bridge Group, Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix, AZ 85007

Tribikram Kundu

ASME Fellow, Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721e-mail: tkundu@email.arizona.edu

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 124(3), 265-272 (Jul 26, 2002) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1491271 History: Received April 17, 2002; Online July 26, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

ACI, 1988, “Recommendations for Design, Manufacture, and Installation of Concrete Piles,” ACI 543R-74, American Concrete Institute, Manual of Concrete Practice, Part 4, Detroit, MI.
Gaythwaite, J. H., 1990, Design of Marine Facilities for the Berthing Mooring, and Repair of Vessels, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY.
Nakamura,  S., 1998, “Design Strategy to Make Steel Bridges More Economical,” J. Construction Steel Review, 46(1–3), Paper No. 48, p. 58.
Guo,  D., and Kundu,  T., 2000, “A New Sensor for Pipe Inspection by Lamb Waves,” Mater. Eval., 58(8), pp. 991–994.
Guo,  D., and Kundu,  T., 2001, “A New Transducer Holder Mechanism for Pipe Inspection,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 110(1), pp. 303–309.
Na,  W. B., and Kundu,  T., 2002, “Underwater Pipeline Inspection Using Guided Waves,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 124, pp. 196–200.
Rose,  J. L., Cho,  Y., and Ditri,  J. L., 1994, “Cylindrical Guided Wave Leakage Due to Liquid Loading,” Rev. Prog. Quant. Nondestr. Eval., D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds., Plenum Press, New York, NY, 13A, pp. 259–266.
Alleyne,  D., and Cawley,  P., 1995, “The Long Range Detection of Corrosion in Pipes Using Lamb Waves,” Rev. Prog. Quant. Nondestr. Eval., D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds., Plenum Press, New York, NY, 14B, pp. 2073–2080.
Chan,  C. W., and Cawley,  P., 1995, “Guided Waves for the Detection of Defects in Welds in Plastic Pipes,” Rev. Prog. Quant. Nondestr. Eval., D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds., Plenum Press, New York, NY, 14B, pp. 1537–1544.
Cheng,  A., and Cheng,  A. P., 1999, “Characterization of Layered Cylindrical Structures Using Cylindrical Waves,” Rev. Prog. Quant. Nondestr. Eval., D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds., Plenum Press, New York, NY, 18A, pp. 223–230.
Na,  W. B., Kundu,  T., and Ehsani,  M. R., 2002, “Ultrasonic Guided Waves for Steel Bar Concrete Interface Testing,” Mater. Eval., 60(3), pp. 437–444.
Travers,  F. A., 1997, “Acoustic Monitoring of Prestressed Concrete Pipe,” Constr. Build. Mater., 11(3), pp. 175–187.
Ogi,  H., Hamaguchi,  T., and Hirao,  M., 2000, “In-situ Monitoring of Ultrasonic Attenuation During Rotating Bending Fatigue of Carbon Steel with Electromagnetic Acoustic Resonance,” J. Alloys Compd., 310, pp. 436–439.
Oursler,  D. A., and Wagner,  J. W., 1995, “Narrow-Band Hybrid Pulsed Laser/EMAT System for Non-contact Ultrasonic Inspection Using Angled Shear Waves,” Mater. Eval., 53(5), pp. 593–598.
Maxfield,  B. W., Kuramoto,  A., and Hulbert,  J. K., 1987, “Evaluating EMAT Designs for Selected Applications,” Mater. Eval., 45, pp. 1166–1183.
Sawaragi,  K., Salzburger,  H. J., Hűbschen,  G., Enami,  K., Kirihigashi,  A., and Tachibana,  N., 2000, “Improvement of SH-Wave EMAT Phased Array Inspection by New Eight Segment Probes,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 198, pp. 153–163.
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Pavlakovic, B., and Lowe, M., 2000, “Dispersion User’s Manual Version 2.0,” Imperial College, University of London, Non-Destructive Testing Laboratory.

Figures

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Photographs of EMATs: (a) transmitter, and (b) receiver
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Geometries of five different specimens: (a) no void or 0% void, (b) void length is 25%, (c) void length is 50%, (d) void length is 75%, and (e) hollow steel pipe
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Time history curves for (a) 25% inclusion length, (b) 50% inclusion length, and (c) 75% inclusion length specimens. Inclusions are located in the bottom part of the specimen cross section as shown.
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Group velocity dispersion curves of the steel pipe. Material properties are given in the text. The solid square corresponds to F(1,1) and L(0,1) mode and the solid circle corresponds to the L(0,2) mode. Here, F(1,1) and L(0,1) are identical in the frequency range of interest.
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Time history curves of the fast wave modes shown in Fig. 8. This time history plot shows direct arrivals of L(0,2) and F(1,2) modes and arrivals of the same modes after being reflected at the pipe boundaries.
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The experimental setup using EMATs (electro-magnetic acoustic transducers)
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Different transmitter and receiver positions on void-free specimen
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Four different paths for the propagating wave
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Time history curves of void-free specimen for transmitter-receiver position: (a) a-g, (b) a-e, (c) a-d, (d) b-d, and (e) c-d
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Time history curves of (a) void-free, (b) 25% void length, (c) 50% void length, and (d) 75% void length specimens. The voids are located in the top part of the specimen cross section as shown.
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Time history curves of the hollow steel pipe
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Time history curves of (a) 25% void length, (b) 50% void length, and (c) 75% void length specimens. The voids are located in the bottom part of the specimen cross section as shown.
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Time history curves for (a) 25% inclusion length, (b) 50% inclusion length, and (c) 75% inclusion length specimens. Inclusions are located in the top part of the specimen cross section as shown.

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