Embedded Active Sensors for In-Situ Structural Health Monitoring of Thin-Wall Structures

[+] Author and Article Information
Victor Giurgiutiu, Andrei Zagrai, JingJing Bao

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 124(3), 293-302 (Jul 26, 2002) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1484117 History: Received May 04, 2001; Revised April 15, 2002; Online July 26, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Giurgiutiu,  V., and Zagrai,  A., 2002, “Embedded Self-Sensing Piezoelectric Active Sensors for On-Line Structural Identification,” ASME J. Vibr. Acoust. 124, Jan., pp. 116–125.
Bartkowicz, T. J., Kim, H. M., Zimmerman, D. C., and Weaver-Smith, S., 1996, “Autonomous Structural Health Monitoring System: A Demonstration,” Proc., 37th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Salt Lake City, UT, April 15–17.
Boller, C., Biemans, C., Staszewski, W., Worden, K., and Tomlinson, G., 1999, “Structural Damage Monitoring Based on an Actuator-Sensor System,” Proc., SPIE Smart Structures and Integrated Systems Conference, Newport, CA. March 1–4.
Boller,  C., 2001, “Ways and Options for Aircraft Structural Health Monitoring,” Smart Mater. Struct., 10, pp. 432–440.
ANSI/IEEE Std. 176, 1987, IEEE Standard on Piezoelectricity, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
Ikeda, T., 1996, Fundamentals of Piezoelectricity, Oxford University Press.
Staveley NDT Technologies, “Sonic Bondmaster™ Product Description,” Kennewick, WA 99336.
Cawley,  P., 1984, “The Impedance Method for Non-Destructive Inspection,” NDT Int., 17, No. 2, pp. 59–65.
Giurgiutiu, V., and Zagrai, A., 2001, “Electro-Mechanical Impedance Method for Crack Detection in Metallic Plates,” SPIE’s 8th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials, March 4–8, Newport Beach, CA, Paper No. 4335–22 (in press).
Lopes, V., Jr., Park, G., Cudney, H., and Inman, D., 1999, “Smart Structures Health Monitoring Using Artificial Neural Network,” 2nd International Workshop of Structural Health Monitoring, Stanford University, September 8–10, pp. 976–985.
Soh,  C. K., Tseng,  K. K.-H., Bhalla,  S., and Gupta,  A., 2000, “Performance of Smart Piezoelectric Patches in Health Monitoring of an RC Bridge,” Smart Mater. Struct., 9, Aug., pp. 533–542.
Tseng, K. K.-H., Soh, C. K., and Naidu, A. S. K., 2002, “Non-Parametric Damage Detection and Characterization Using Smart Piezoceramic Material,” Smart Mater. Struct. (in press).
Viktorov, I. A., 1967, Rayleigh and Lamb Waves, Plenum Press, New York, NY.
Krautkramer, J., and Krautkramer, H., 1990, Ultrasonic Testing of Materials, Springer-Verlag.
Rose, J. L., 1999, Ultrasonic Waves in Solid Media, Cambridge University Press.
Lemistre, M., Gouyon, R., Kaczmarek, H., and Balageas, D., 1999, “Damage Localization in Composite Plates Using Wavelet Transform Processing on Lamb Wave Signals,” 2nd International Workshop of Structural Health Monitoring, Stanford University, September 8–10, pp. 861–870.
Keilers,  C. H., and Chang,  F.-K., 1995, “Identifying Delaminations in Composite Beams Using Built-in Piezoelectrics: Part I—Experiments and Analysis; Part II An Identification Method,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 6, Sept., pp. 649–672.
Chang, F.-K., 1998, “Manufacturing and Design of Built-in Diagnostics for Composite Structures,” 52nd Meeting of Society for Machinery Failure Prevention Technology, Virginia Beach, VA, March 30—April 3.
Cawley, P., 1997, “Quick Inspection of Large Structures Using Low Frequency Ultrasound,” Structural Health Monitoring—Current Status and Perspective, Fu-Kuo Chang, ed., Technomic, Inc.
Blitz, J., Simpson, G., 1996, Ultrasonic Methods of Non-Destructive Testing, Chapman & Hall.
Duke, J. C., Jr., 1998, Acousto-Ultrasonics—Theory and Applications, Plenum Press.


Grahic Jump Location
Electro-mechanical coupling between the PZT active sensor and the structure
Grahic Jump Location
Damage detection strategy using an array of 4 piezoelectric active sensors and E/M impedance method: (a) detection of structural cracks; (b) detection of corrosion damage. The circles represent the sensing radius of each active sensor.
Grahic Jump Location
Piezoelectric active sensor interaction with host structure: (a) PZT wafer affixed to the host structure; (b) interaction forces and moments; (c) active-sensor elastic waves interaction on a 2-D surface
Grahic Jump Location
Illustration of time resolution concept: (a) adequate time resolution at 300 kHz allows for clear delineation between transmitted and received waves; (b) inadequate time resolution at 20 kHz produces reception of arriving waves before generation of the transmitted wave being terminated
Grahic Jump Location
Wavelength-frequency correlation for Lamb waves in 1.6-mm aluminum alloy plate
Grahic Jump Location
Experimental setup for 2024 aluminum alloy, 1.6 mm thick, rectangular-plate wave propagation experiments: (a) schematic of the narrow strip (914 mm×14 mm×1.6 mm), active sensors, and instrumentation; (b) photograph of the rectangular plate (914 mm×504 mm×1.6 mm), active sensors, and instrumentation; (c) detail of the microcontroller switch box
Grahic Jump Location
(a) Excitation signal and echo signals on active sensor 11, and reception signals on active sensors 1 through 8; (b) correlation between radial distance and time of flight
Grahic Jump Location
Group velocity dispersion curves for Lamb wave A0 and S0 modes (measurements versus theory)
Grahic Jump Location
Frequency tuning studies identified a maximum wave response around 300 kHz
Grahic Jump Location
Damage detection strategy using an array of four piezoelectric active sensors and wave propagation techniques: (a) detection of structural cracks, (b) detection of corrosion damage
Grahic Jump Location
Systematic study of E/M impedance technique on circular plates: (a) photograph of actual specimen showing a 7-mm active sensor of the sensor and a simulated crack (EDM slit); (b) progression of specimen geometries with simulated cracks (slits) at increasing distance from the E/M impedance sensor
Grahic Jump Location
E/M impedance results in the 300–450 kHz band: (a) mild damage effects on spectrum; (b) severe damage effects on spectrum; (c) damage metric variation with the distance between the crack and the sensor
Grahic Jump Location
The detection of simulated crack damage in aging aircraft panels using the E/M impedance method. Four rivet heads, four PZT active sensors, and a 10-mm EDM-ed notch (simulated crack) are featured
Grahic Jump Location
Real part of impedance for sensors bonded on aging aircraft structure: (a) 200–2600-kHz range; (b) zoom into the 50–1000-kHz range
Grahic Jump Location
Active sensor self-diagnostic using the imaginary part of the E/M impedance: when sensor is disbonded, new free-vibration resonance features appear at ∼267 kHz (after 1)
Grahic Jump Location
Simulation of Lamb waves in a 1-mm thick aluminum plate: (a) symmetric mode S0,f=1.56 MHz; (b) antisymmetric mode A0,f=0.788 MHz. (For full animation, see http://www.engr.sc.edu/research/lamss/default.htm under research Thrust 1.)
Grahic Jump Location
Dispersion curves for S0 and A0 Lamb wave modes in thin-gage aluminum alloy structures: (a) wave speed, (b) group velocity



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In