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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Embedded Active Sensors for In-Situ Structural Health Monitoring of Thin-Wall Structures

[+] Author and Article Information
Victor Giurgiutiu, Andrei Zagrai, JingJing Bao

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 124(3), 293-302 (Jul 26, 2002) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1484117 History: Received May 04, 2001; Revised April 15, 2002; Online July 26, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Giurgiutiu,  V., and Zagrai,  A., 2002, “Embedded Self-Sensing Piezoelectric Active Sensors for On-Line Structural Identification,” ASME J. Vibr. Acoust. 124, Jan., pp. 116–125.
Bartkowicz, T. J., Kim, H. M., Zimmerman, D. C., and Weaver-Smith, S., 1996, “Autonomous Structural Health Monitoring System: A Demonstration,” Proc., 37th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Salt Lake City, UT, April 15–17.
Boller, C., Biemans, C., Staszewski, W., Worden, K., and Tomlinson, G., 1999, “Structural Damage Monitoring Based on an Actuator-Sensor System,” Proc., SPIE Smart Structures and Integrated Systems Conference, Newport, CA. March 1–4.
Boller,  C., 2001, “Ways and Options for Aircraft Structural Health Monitoring,” Smart Mater. Struct., 10, pp. 432–440.
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Giurgiutiu, V., and Zagrai, A., 2001, “Electro-Mechanical Impedance Method for Crack Detection in Metallic Plates,” SPIE’s 8th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials, March 4–8, Newport Beach, CA, Paper No. 4335–22 (in press).
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Figures

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Piezoelectric active sensor interaction with host structure: (a) PZT wafer affixed to the host structure; (b) interaction forces and moments; (c) active-sensor elastic waves interaction on a 2-D surface
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Electro-mechanical coupling between the PZT active sensor and the structure
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Systematic study of E/M impedance technique on circular plates: (a) photograph of actual specimen showing a 7-mm active sensor of the sensor and a simulated crack (EDM slit); (b) progression of specimen geometries with simulated cracks (slits) at increasing distance from the E/M impedance sensor
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E/M impedance results in the 300–450 kHz band: (a) mild damage effects on spectrum; (b) severe damage effects on spectrum; (c) damage metric variation with the distance between the crack and the sensor
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The detection of simulated crack damage in aging aircraft panels using the E/M impedance method. Four rivet heads, four PZT active sensors, and a 10-mm EDM-ed notch (simulated crack) are featured
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Real part of impedance for sensors bonded on aging aircraft structure: (a) 200–2600-kHz range; (b) zoom into the 50–1000-kHz range
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Active sensor self-diagnostic using the imaginary part of the E/M impedance: when sensor is disbonded, new free-vibration resonance features appear at ∼267 kHz (after 1)
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Damage detection strategy using an array of 4 piezoelectric active sensors and E/M impedance method: (a) detection of structural cracks; (b) detection of corrosion damage. The circles represent the sensing radius of each active sensor.
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Simulation of Lamb waves in a 1-mm thick aluminum plate: (a) symmetric mode S0,f=1.56 MHz; (b) antisymmetric mode A0,f=0.788 MHz. (For full animation, see http://www.engr.sc.edu/research/lamss/default.htm under research Thrust 1.)
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Dispersion curves for S0 and A0 Lamb wave modes in thin-gage aluminum alloy structures: (a) wave speed, (b) group velocity
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Illustration of time resolution concept: (a) adequate time resolution at 300 kHz allows for clear delineation between transmitted and received waves; (b) inadequate time resolution at 20 kHz produces reception of arriving waves before generation of the transmitted wave being terminated
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Wavelength-frequency correlation for Lamb waves in 1.6-mm aluminum alloy plate
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Experimental setup for 2024 aluminum alloy, 1.6 mm thick, rectangular-plate wave propagation experiments: (a) schematic of the narrow strip (914 mm×14 mm×1.6 mm), active sensors, and instrumentation; (b) photograph of the rectangular plate (914 mm×504 mm×1.6 mm), active sensors, and instrumentation; (c) detail of the microcontroller switch box
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(a) Excitation signal and echo signals on active sensor 11, and reception signals on active sensors 1 through 8; (b) correlation between radial distance and time of flight
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Group velocity dispersion curves for Lamb wave A0 and S0 modes (measurements versus theory)
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Frequency tuning studies identified a maximum wave response around 300 kHz
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Damage detection strategy using an array of four piezoelectric active sensors and wave propagation techniques: (a) detection of structural cracks, (b) detection of corrosion damage

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