Embedded Active Sensors for In-Situ Structural Health Monitoring of Thin-Wall Structures

[+] Author and Article Information
Victor Giurgiutiu, Andrei Zagrai, JingJing Bao

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 124(3), 293-302 (Jul 26, 2002) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1484117 History: Received May 04, 2001; Revised April 15, 2002; Online July 26, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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Piezoelectric active sensor interaction with host structure: (a) PZT wafer affixed to the host structure; (b) interaction forces and moments; (c) active-sensor elastic waves interaction on a 2-D surface
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Electro-mechanical coupling between the PZT active sensor and the structure
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Systematic study of E/M impedance technique on circular plates: (a) photograph of actual specimen showing a 7-mm active sensor of the sensor and a simulated crack (EDM slit); (b) progression of specimen geometries with simulated cracks (slits) at increasing distance from the E/M impedance sensor
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E/M impedance results in the 300–450 kHz band: (a) mild damage effects on spectrum; (b) severe damage effects on spectrum; (c) damage metric variation with the distance between the crack and the sensor
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The detection of simulated crack damage in aging aircraft panels using the E/M impedance method. Four rivet heads, four PZT active sensors, and a 10-mm EDM-ed notch (simulated crack) are featured
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Real part of impedance for sensors bonded on aging aircraft structure: (a) 200–2600-kHz range; (b) zoom into the 50–1000-kHz range
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Active sensor self-diagnostic using the imaginary part of the E/M impedance: when sensor is disbonded, new free-vibration resonance features appear at ∼267 kHz (after 1)
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Damage detection strategy using an array of 4 piezoelectric active sensors and E/M impedance method: (a) detection of structural cracks; (b) detection of corrosion damage. The circles represent the sensing radius of each active sensor.
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Simulation of Lamb waves in a 1-mm thick aluminum plate: (a) symmetric mode S0,f=1.56 MHz; (b) antisymmetric mode A0,f=0.788 MHz. (For full animation, see http://www.engr.sc.edu/research/lamss/default.htm under research Thrust 1.)
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Dispersion curves for S0 and A0 Lamb wave modes in thin-gage aluminum alloy structures: (a) wave speed, (b) group velocity
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Illustration of time resolution concept: (a) adequate time resolution at 300 kHz allows for clear delineation between transmitted and received waves; (b) inadequate time resolution at 20 kHz produces reception of arriving waves before generation of the transmitted wave being terminated
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Wavelength-frequency correlation for Lamb waves in 1.6-mm aluminum alloy plate
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Experimental setup for 2024 aluminum alloy, 1.6 mm thick, rectangular-plate wave propagation experiments: (a) schematic of the narrow strip (914 mm×14 mm×1.6 mm), active sensors, and instrumentation; (b) photograph of the rectangular plate (914 mm×504 mm×1.6 mm), active sensors, and instrumentation; (c) detail of the microcontroller switch box
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(a) Excitation signal and echo signals on active sensor 11, and reception signals on active sensors 1 through 8; (b) correlation between radial distance and time of flight
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Group velocity dispersion curves for Lamb wave A0 and S0 modes (measurements versus theory)
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Frequency tuning studies identified a maximum wave response around 300 kHz
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Damage detection strategy using an array of four piezoelectric active sensors and wave propagation techniques: (a) detection of structural cracks, (b) detection of corrosion damage




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