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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Ultrasonic Stress Measurement and Material Characterization in Pressure Vessels, Piping, and Welds

[+] Author and Article Information
Don E. Bray

Don E. Bray, Inc., College Station, TX 77842-0315e-mail: debray@brayengr.com

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 124(3), 326-335 (Jul 26, 2002) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1480825 History: Received October 09, 2000; Revised March 29, 2002; Online July 26, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Avallone, E., and Baumeister, T., III, eds. 1987, Marks Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, Ninth Edition, Secs. 5 and 8, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY.
Boresi, A. P., Sidebottom, O. M., Seely, F. B., and Smith, J. O., 1978, Advanced Mechanics of Materials, 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.
Karlsson, L., Jonsson, M., Lindgren, L. E., Nasstrom, M., and Troive, L., 1989, “Residual Stresses and Deformations in a Welded Thin-Walled Pipe,” Weld Residual Stresses and Plastic Deformation, E. Rybicki and M. Shiratori, Contributing eds., Honolulu, Hawaii, ASME PVP-Vol. 173, pp. 7–11.
Huang,  C. C., and Chuang,  T. H., 1997, “Effects of Post-Weld Heat Treatments on the Residual Stress and Mechanical Properties of Laser Beam Welded SAE 4130 Steel Plates,” Mater. Manuf. Processes, 12, No. 5, pp. 779–797.
Thompson, R. B., Lu, W. Y., and Clark Jr., A. V., 1996, Handbook of Measurement of Residual Stress, eds., J. Lu, M. James, and G. Roy, Society for Experimental Stress Analysis, Bethel, Connecticut, Chap. 7, pp. 149–178.
Schneider, E., 1997, Structural and Residual Stress Analysis by Nondestructive Methods, ed. V. Hauk, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Chap. 4, pp. 522–563.
Santos,  A., and Bray,  Don E., 2000, “Ultrasonic Stress Measurement Using PC Based and Commercial Flaw Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 71, No. 9, Sept., pp. 3464–3469.
Santos, A. A., and Bray, Don E., 2000, “Application of Longitudinal Critically Refracted Waves to Evaluate Stresses in Railroad Wheels,” Topics on Nondestructive Testing, Vol. 5, The American Society for Nondestructive Testing.
Bray, D. E., and Chance, B., 1999, “Practical Aspects of Ultrasonic Stress Measurement,” ed. C. Darvennes, ASME NDE-Vol. 19, pp. 75–79.
Tanala,  E., Bourse,  G., Fremoit,  M., and De Belleval,  J. F., 1995, “Determination of Near Surface Residual Stresses on Welded Joints Using Ultrasonic Methods,” NDT & E Int., 28, No. 2, pp. 83–88.
Szelazek, J., 1998, “Monitoring of Thermal Stresses in Continuously Welded Rails with Ultrasonic Technique,” ECNDT ’98, Copenhagen 26–29 May, Vol. 3, No. 6, NDTNet, June.
Schneider, E., and Herder, R., 1998, “Ultrasonic Evaluation of Stresses in the Rims of Railroad Wheels,” ECNDT ’98, Copenhagen 26–29 May 1998, Vol. 3, No. 6, NDTNet, June.
Bray, D. E., and Stanley, R. K. 1997, Nondestructive Evaluation, Revised Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton FL.
Bray,  D. E., and Tang,  W., 2001, “Evaluation of Stress Gradients in Steel Plates and Bars with the LCR Ultrasonic Wave,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 207, pp. 231–240.
United States Steel Corporation, 1971, The Making, Shaping and Treatment of Steel, Ninth Edition, United States Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA.
Ginzel,  E. A., and Ginzel,  R. K., 1995, “Study of Acoustic Velocity Variations in Line Pipe Steel,” Mater. Eval., 53, No. 5, May, pp. 598–603.
Dong, P., and Brust, F. W., 2000, “Characteristic residual Stress Distributions in Pressure Vessels and Piping Components,” Assessment Methodologies for Preventing Failure: Deterministic and Probabilistic Aspects and Weld Residual Stress, ed. R. Mohan, ASME PVP-Vol. 410-1, pp. 85–92.
Michaleris, P., 1989, “Residual Stress Distributions for Multi-Pass Welds in Pressure Vessel and Piping Components,” ed., R. W. Warke, ASME PVP-Vol. 327, pp. 17–27.
Leon-Salamanca,  T., and Bray,  D. E., 1996, “Residual Stress Measurements in Steel Plates and Welds Using Critically Refracted (LCR) Waves,” Res. Nondestruct. Eval., 7, No. 4, 169–184.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
LCR data collecting system
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Typical LCR arrival in steel, freq.=5 MHz. X indicates second positive zero crossing.
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Pressure tank fitted with strain gages and frame for taking LCR data
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Longitudinal wave speeds in longitudinal (width) direction of .5 in. (12.7 mm) wall thickness, 1 in. (25.4 mm) wide ring cut from 12-in. (305-mm)-dia pipe steel
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LCR probe and frame on pressure vessel
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Circumferential LCR arrival at probe 1 on pressure vessel
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Expected thick wall cylinder tangential (hoop) stress distributions across wall of pressurized pipe. LCR probe positions T—transmitter, R1—first receiver, and R2 second receiver. LCR travel-times at 0 deg position for pressurized vessel.
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Circumferential LCR travel times at 0 deg position at midpoint of pressurized vessel
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Circumferential LCR travel times at 0 deg position at midpoint of vessel for 4 ksi wall stress and higher
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Circumferential LCR travel times at 270-deg position midpoint on vessel length—probe not removed and replaced
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LCR probe and frame in vicinity of weld
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Circumferential LCR travel-times approaching the weld

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