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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Residual and Applied Stress Estimation From Directional Magnetic Permeability Measurements With MWM Sensors

[+] Author and Article Information
Vladimir Zilberstein, Mike Fisher, David Grundy, Darrell Schlicker, Vladimir Tsukernik, Valeriy Vengrinovich, Neil Goldfine

JENTEK Sensors, Inc., Waltham, MA 02453-7013e-mail: jentek@shore.net

Thomas Yentzer

WR-ALC, Robins Air Force Base, Warner Robins, GA

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 124(3), 375-381 (Jul 26, 2002) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1491273 History: Revised May 01, 2002; Online July 26, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Bray, D. E., 2001, Residual Stress Measurement and General Nondestructive Evaluation, ASME PVP-Vol. 429, Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Atlanta, GA.
1st International Conference on Barkhausen Noise and Micromagnetic Testing, September 1–2, 1998 Hannover, Germany, Conference Proceedings, publ. by Stress tech Oy, Finland.
Vengrinovich, V. L., 1991, Magnetic Noise Structuroscopy (in Russian), Navuka i tehnika, Minsk, Belorussia.
Bozorth, R. M., 1978, Ferromagnetism, IEEE Press.
Cullity, B. D., 1972, Introduction to Magnetic Materials, Addison-Wesley Publ. Co., p. 268.
Goldfine, N. J., et al., 2000, “Scanning and Permanently Mounted Conformable MWM Eddy Current Arrays for Fatigue/Corrosion Imaging and Fatigue Monitoring,” USAF ASIP Conf., San Antonio, TX, December 6.
Goldfine, N. J., et al., 2001, “Surface Mounted Periodic Field Eddy Current Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring,” SPIE Conf.: Smart Structures and Materials, NDE for Health Monitoring and Diagnosis, Newport Beach, CA, March 4–8.
Zilberstein,  V., Schlicker,  D., Walrath,  K., Weiss,  V., and Goldfine,  N., 2001, “MWM Eddy Current Sensors for Monitoring of Crack Initiation and Growth during Fatigue Tests and in Service,” Int. J. Fatigue, 23, (Supplement), pp. S477–S485.
Goldfine, N. J., D. Schlicker, Y. Sheiretov, A. Washabaugh, V. Zilberstein, and T. Lovett, 2001, “Conformable Eddy Current Sensors and Arrays for Gas Turbine Component Quality Assessment,” ASME Turbo Expo, Land, Sea, and Air, June, New Orleans, LA.
Fisher, J. M., Goldfine, N. J., and Zilberstein, V., 2000, “Cold Work Quality Assessment and Fatigue Characterization Using Conformable MWM Eddy-Current Sensors,” preprint for the 49th Defense Working Group on NDT, Biloxi, MS.
Yentzer, T., et al., 2000, “Anisotropic Conductivity Measurements for Quality Control of C-130/P-3 Propeller Blades Using MWM-Sensors with Grid Methods,” presented at the 4th DoD/FAA/NASA Conference on Aging Aircraft.
Zilberstein, V., T. Lovett, A. Washabaugh, M. Windoloski, and N. Goldfine, 2001, “Applications for Conformable Eddy Current Sensors Including High-Resolution and Deep Penetration Sensor Arrays in Manufacturing and Power Generation,” Proc. 7th ASME NDT Topical Conference, San Antonio, TX, Apr., ASME NDE-Vol. 20, eds., C. Darvennes and T. Kundu.
Goldfine, N. J., et al., 2000, “Materials Characterization and Flaw Detection for Metallic Coating Repairs,” BiNDT Journal Insight, 42 , No. 12.
Zilberstein, V., et al., 2000, “Applications of Spatially Periodic Field Eddy Current Sensors for Surface Layer Characterization in Metallic Alloys,” presented at 27th Annual Review of Progress in QNDE at Iowa State University, Ames IA.
Washabaugh, A., et al., 2000, “Absolute Electrical Property Measurements Using Conformable MWM Eddy-Current Sensors for Quantitative Materials Characterization,” presented at 15th World Conference on Non-Destructive Testing ICNDT, Roma, Italy, Oct.
Melcher, J. R., 1991, “Apparatus and Methods for Measuring Permeability and Conductivity in Materials Using Multiple Wavelength Interrogations,” US Patent No. 5,015,951, May 14.
Goldfine, N. J., D. Clark, and H. Eckhardt, “Apparatus and Methods for Measuring Bulk Materials and Surface Condition for Flat and Curved Parts,” Serial No. 60/002,804 U.S. Patent Pending.
Goldfine, N. J., and J. R. Melcher, 1995, “Magnetometer Having Periodic Winding Structure and Material Property Estimator,” U.S. Patent No. 5,453,689, September 26.
Goldfine, N. J., 1993, “Magnetometers for Improved Materials Characterization in Aerospace Applications,” Mater. Eval., Mar., pp. 396–405.
Sheiretov, Y., 2001, “Deep Penetration Magnetoquasistatic Sensors,” Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, June.

Figures

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Representative MWM formats: (a) single sensing MWM sensor (D – drive, S – sense), (b) deep-penetration MWM-Array; and (c) high-resolution MWM-Array with multiple sensing elements for property imaging
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Measurement grids: (a) schematic of measurement grid generation process; (b) and (c) representative measurement grids relating the magnitude and phase of the sensor terminal transimpedance to the lift-off and magnetic permeability, e.g., for carbon and alloy steels, or lift-off and electrical conductivity, e.g., for superalloys, respectively
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MWM-Array sensor with the 37-channel probe (left), and 39-channel parallel instrumentation (right)
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Correlation between MWM measured permeability and maximum tensile stresses in the loading sequences
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MWM-Array generated normalized permeability images for one-half of a double-notched, low-alloy 4340 steel specimen failed in a tensile test. The images illustrate the ability to obtain distribution of residual stresses due to correlation between permeability and stresses. Figures (e) and (f) are photographs of the scanned area of the specimen. Images (a) and (b) were obtained with the MWM-Array operating at 1 MHz, while images (c) and (d) were obtained at 158 kHz. In (a) and (c), the primary winding of the MWM-Array was oriented parallel to the loading axis, while in (b) and (d), it was oriented perpendicular to the loading axis. The orientation of the MWM-Array relative to the specimen is schematically shown on the left.
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Test setup for MWM permeability measurements under variable bending stresses
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MWM measured permeability versus bending stress at stresses from −700 to +700 MPa. Note that in the legend, nos. 1 through 6 for each frequency indicate the sequence of loading.
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Multifrequency MWM permeability scan over an area with gentle grinding
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Multifrequency MWM permeability scan over an area with moderately aggressive grinding
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Multifrequency MWM permeability scan over an area with very aggressive grinding
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MWM measured permeability versus compressive residual stress (from X-ray diffraction) in a high-strength steel component

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