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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Stress Analysis and Determination of Bolt Preload in Pipe Flange Connections With Gaskets Under Internal Pressure

[+] Author and Article Information
Toshiyuki Sawa, Naofumi Ogata

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yamanashi University, Yamanashi, Japan

Takahito Nishida

Nippon Valqua Inc., Tokyo, Japan

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 124(4), 385-396 (Nov 08, 2002) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1511736 History: Received September 26, 2001; Revised July 30, 2002; Online November 08, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Kumano,  H., Sawa,  T., and Hirose,  T., 1994, “Mechanical Behavior of Bolted Joints under Steady Heat Conduction,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 116, pp. 42–48.
Morohoshi,  T., and Sawa,  T., 1994, “On the Characteristics of Rectangular Bolted Flanged Connections with Gaskets Subjected to External Tensile Loads and Bending Moments,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 116, pp. 207–215.
Sawa,  T., Higurashi,  N., and Akagawa,  H., 1991, “A Stress Analysis of Pipe Flange Connections,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 113, pp. 497–503.
Sawa,  T., and Shiraishi,  H., 1983, “A Simple Method to Calculate the Force Ratio of Bolted Joints,” Bull. JSME, 26, pp. 1088–1096.
Water,  E. O. and Schneider,  R. W., 1969, Trans. ASME, 91(3), p. 615.
Bickford, J., 1998, Gaskets and Gasketed Joints, Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, NY.
Hsu, K. H., Payne, J. R., Bickford, J. H., and Leon, G. F., 1990, “The US PVRC Elevated Temperature Bolted Flange Research Program,” Proc., 2nd International Symposium on Fluid Sealing of Static Gasketed Joints, La Baule, p. 9.
ASME/ANSI B16.5, 1988, Sec. VIII, Div. I.
Payne, J. R., Bazergui, A., and Leon, G. F., 1984, “A New Look at Gasket Factors,” Proc., 10th International Conference on Fluid Sealing, BHRA, H1, pp. 345–363.
Payne, J. R., Bazergui, A., and Leon, G. F., 1985, “New Gasket Factors-A Proposed Procedure,” Proc. ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, ASME PVP-Vol. 98.2, pp. 85–93.
Payne, J. R., Leon, G. F., and Bazergui, A., 1987, “Obtaining New Gasket Design Constants from Gasket Tightness Data,” Proc., Spring Conference on Experimental Mechanics, SEM, p. 298.
Leon, G. F., and Payne, J. R., 1989, “An Overview of the PVRC Research Program on Bolted Flanged Connections,” Proc, 6th International Conference on Pressure Vessel Technology, Vessel Technology, 1, pp. 217.
Sawa,  T., and Maruyama,  K., 1976, “On the Deformation of the Bolt Head and Nut in a Bolted Joint,” Bull. JSME, 19, pp. 203–211.
Sawa, T., Morohoshi, T., and Kumano, H., 1991, “A New Calculation Method of the Spring Constant in a Bolted Connection with a Gasket,” Proc., ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, ASME PVP-Vol. 217, pp. 119–128.

Figures

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A pipe flange connection with a spiral-wound gasket subjected to internal pressure
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A model for theoretical analysis and dimensions of a pipe flange connection—(a) the case where bolt clamping force Ff+Ft is applied; (b) the case where internal pressure is applied
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Approximated stress-strain lines of the spiral-wound gasket used in the theoretical analysis
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Mesh divisions and stress-strain relationship of the gasket in the FEM calculations—(a) an example of mesh divisions in the FEM calculations; (b) stress-strain lines of the spiral-wound gasket used in the finite element calculations
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Dimensions of the pipe flange, the spiral-wound gasket and the bolt used in the experiments—(a) pipe flange, (b) spiral-wound gasket, (c) bolt
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Schematic of the experimental setup of the pipe flange connection in the experiments
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Approximated stress-strain lines of the spiral-wound gasket used in the theoretical analysis (the case where internal pressure is applied)
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Effects of Young’s modulus E3 on the contact stress distributions (the case where internal pressure is applied)
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Contact stress distributions of the pipe flange connection obtained by FEM (in the θ direction)—(a) the case of initial clamping state; (b) the case where internal pressure is applied
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Contact stress distributions of the pipe flange connection obtained by FEM (in the r direction, θ=0 deg)—(a) the case of initial clamping state; (b) the case where internal pressure is applied
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Comparisons between the analytical and the FEM results (in the r direction, θ=0 deg)—(a) the case of initial clamping state; (b) the case where internal pressure is applied
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Measured results of the tightness parameter and the new gasket constants for the spiral-wound gasket in the pipe flange connection—(a) helium gas, (b) nitrogen gas
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Comparisons of increment in axial bolt force (load factor ϕg) of the pipe flange connection

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