Application of Laser Pulse Heating to Simulate Thermomechanical Damage at Gun Bore Surfaces*

[+] Author and Article Information
Paul J. Cote, Sabrina L. Lee, Mark E. Todaro, Gay Kendall

US Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Benét Laboratories, Watervliet, NY 12189

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 125(3), 335-341 (Aug 01, 2003) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1593697 History: Received March 12, 2003; Revised April 23, 2003; Online August 01, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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Another example of crack blunting in the heat-affected zone of the chromium-plated vented combustor nozzle
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Examples of typical blunt crack propagation through the heat-affected zone of the chromium-plated vented combustor nozzle
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Typical example of crack blunting effect observed after 20 laser pulses on chromium-plated gun steel specimens. Note the parallel alignment of the chromium crack faces which generally accompanies the blunting process. Such features are also commonly observed in fired gun tubes. Note also the delineation of an interdiffusion zone at the chromium/steel interface after only 20 pulses.
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An example of one of the furthest progressions of blunt cracks after 20 laser pulses of a chromium plated specimen. Some cavitation has also occurred. An example of damage initiation in the steel at the tip of a fine chromium crack is seen in the upper part of the figure.
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Examples of crack blunting in sputtered chromium specimen after 20 laser pulses. The cavitation process has extended to nearly cylindrical voids.
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Another example of cavitation extending into a large void under laser pulse heating of the sputtered chromium specimen. In this case an inclusion evidently enhanced the process.
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An example of crack blunting in the heat-affected zone of the chromium-plated vented combustor nozzle
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Collection of micrographs of subsurface cracks that formed in the chromium-coated and uncoated vented combustor nozzles. Note the initiation of cavitation in some of the examples. A typical fully developed crack is also shown. One figure shows multiple subsurface cracks which probably represents a flaw in the steel. Nominal values of KIC are labeled in the heat-affected zone and in the tempered martensite zone to underline the remarkable resistance of the brittle layer to fracture.
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Dilatometer result showing strains during one complete thermal cycle. There is a thermal expansion on heating followed by a contraction during the austenite phase transformation near 750°C. On cooling, the contraction is greater in the austenite phase because of the higher coefficient. The contraction is interrupted by the martensite expansion near 280°C. Also labeled are our measured values of Vickers hardness corresponding to the indicated location on the thermal cycle.
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The crack pattern along one of the lands of a 155-mm gun specimen. The major cracks are aligned across the wear marks that form as a result of sliding contact with the metal rotating band. This “brickwork” is typical of surface cracks in the 155-mm systems.
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Schematic of cavitation process in the laser pulse heating experiments. Also illustrated is the effect of pressure in suppressing the cavitation process.




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