Application of Laser Pulse Heating to Simulate Thermomechanical Damage at Gun Bore Surfaces*

[+] Author and Article Information
Paul J. Cote, Sabrina L. Lee, Mark E. Todaro, Gay Kendall

US Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Benét Laboratories, Watervliet, NY 12189

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 125(3), 335-341 (Aug 01, 2003) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1593697 History: Received March 12, 2003; Revised April 23, 2003; Online August 01, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Burlew, J. S., ed., 1946, Hypervelocity Guns and the Control of Gun Erosion: Summary Technical Report of the National Defense Research Committee, Division 1, Office of Scientific Research and Development, Washington, DC.
Cote,  P. J., and Rickard,  C., 2000, “Gas-Metal Reaction Products in the Erosion of Chromium Plated Gun Bores,” Wear, 241, pp. 17–25.
Ahmad, I., 1988, “The Problem of Gun Barrel Erosion—An Overview,” Gun Propulsion Technology: Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics Series, L. Steifel, ed., AIAA, Washington, DC, pp. 311–355.
Dowding, J. S., and Montgomery, J. S., eds., 1996, Proceedings of the Sagamore Workshop on Gun Barrel Wear and Erosion, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Wilmington, DE.
Lee,  S. L., Windover,  D., and Mello,  K., 1998, “Grain Orientation in Electrolytic Chromium Deposition,” Adv. X-Ray Anal., 41, pp. 707–717.
Lee, S. L., and Windover, D., 1998, “X-Ray Determination of Texture and Residual Stress in Low Contraction Electrolytic Chromium Coatings,” Proceedings of SEM Spring Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Society for Experimental Mechanics, Bethel CT, pp. 221–223.
Cote,  P. J., Kendall,  G., and Todaro,  M. E., 2001, “Laser Pulse Heating of Gun Bore Coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 146–147, pp. 65–69.
Cote,  P., Todaro,  M., Kendall,  G., and Witherell,  M., 2003, “Gun Bore Erosion Mechanisms Revisited With Laser Pulse Heating,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 163–164, pp. 478–483.
Underwood,  J., Parker,  A., Cote,  P., and Sopok,  S., 1999, “Compressive Thermal Yielding Leading to Hydrogen Cracking in a Fired Cannon,” ASME J. of Pressure Vessel Technol., 121, pp. 116–120.
Crayon,  D., Fish,  A. E., and Hyland,  E., 2002, “Coatings Evaluation Using a Vented Combustor,” Exp. Tech., 26(4), pp. 24–27.
Ganev,  N., Kraus,  I., and Trpcevska,  J., 1989, “X-Ray Measurement of Residual Stresses Induced by Laser Treatment,” Phys. Status Solidi A, 115, pp. K13–15.
Higashi,  K., Okada,  T., Mukai,  T., and Tanimura,  S., 1992, “Very High Strain Rate Superplasticity in a Mechanically Alloyed IN9052 Alloy,” Journal of Materials Science and Engineering A, 159(1), pp. L1–L4.
Chokshi,  A. H., and Mukherjee,  A. K., 1993, “The Influence of Hydrostatic Pressure on Grain Boundary Sliding in Superplasticity,” Journal of Materials Science and Engineering A,A171, pp. 47–54.
Gawne,  D. T., 1984, “Failure of Electrodeposited Chromium Coatings on Cast Iron Substrates,” Thin Solid Films, 118, pp. 385–393.


Grahic Jump Location
Typical example of crack blunting effect observed after 20 laser pulses on chromium-plated gun steel specimens. Note the parallel alignment of the chromium crack faces which generally accompanies the blunting process. Such features are also commonly observed in fired gun tubes. Note also the delineation of an interdiffusion zone at the chromium/steel interface after only 20 pulses.
Grahic Jump Location
An example of one of the furthest progressions of blunt cracks after 20 laser pulses of a chromium plated specimen. Some cavitation has also occurred. An example of damage initiation in the steel at the tip of a fine chromium crack is seen in the upper part of the figure.
Grahic Jump Location
Examples of crack blunting in sputtered chromium specimen after 20 laser pulses. The cavitation process has extended to nearly cylindrical voids.
Grahic Jump Location
Another example of cavitation extending into a large void under laser pulse heating of the sputtered chromium specimen. In this case an inclusion evidently enhanced the process.
Grahic Jump Location
An example of crack blunting in the heat-affected zone of the chromium-plated vented combustor nozzle
Grahic Jump Location
Another example of crack blunting in the heat-affected zone of the chromium-plated vented combustor nozzle
Grahic Jump Location
Examples of typical blunt crack propagation through the heat-affected zone of the chromium-plated vented combustor nozzle
Grahic Jump Location
Collection of micrographs of subsurface cracks that formed in the chromium-coated and uncoated vented combustor nozzles. Note the initiation of cavitation in some of the examples. A typical fully developed crack is also shown. One figure shows multiple subsurface cracks which probably represents a flaw in the steel. Nominal values of KIC are labeled in the heat-affected zone and in the tempered martensite zone to underline the remarkable resistance of the brittle layer to fracture.
Grahic Jump Location
Dilatometer result showing strains during one complete thermal cycle. There is a thermal expansion on heating followed by a contraction during the austenite phase transformation near 750°C. On cooling, the contraction is greater in the austenite phase because of the higher coefficient. The contraction is interrupted by the martensite expansion near 280°C. Also labeled are our measured values of Vickers hardness corresponding to the indicated location on the thermal cycle.
Grahic Jump Location
The crack pattern along one of the lands of a 155-mm gun specimen. The major cracks are aligned across the wear marks that form as a result of sliding contact with the metal rotating band. This “brickwork” is typical of surface cracks in the 155-mm systems.
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of cavitation process in the laser pulse heating experiments. Also illustrated is the effect of pressure in suppressing the cavitation process.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In