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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Nondestructive Evaluation of FRP Design Criteria With Primary Consideration to Fatigue Loading

[+] Author and Article Information
Guillermo Ramirez

University of Kansas, Department of Civil Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Learned Hall, 1530 West 15th Street, Room 2006, Lawrence, KS 66045

Paul H. Ziehl

Tulane University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 206 Civil Engineering Building, New Orleans, LA 70118

Timothy J. Fowler

The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Civil Engineering, Ferguson Structural Engineering Laboratory, 10100 Burnet Road, Building No. 177, Austin, TX 78731

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 126(2), 216-228 (May 05, 2004) (13 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1688371 History: Received October 09, 2002; Revised June 26, 2003; Online May 05, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Fowler,  T. J., 1979, “Acoustic Emission of Fiber Reinforced Plastics,” Journal of the Technical Councils of ASCE, pp. 281–289.
Gorman,  M. R., 1997, “Modal AE: A New Understanding of Acoustic Emission,” J. Acoust. Emiss.
Gorman, M. R., 1994, “New Technology for Wave Based Acoustic Emission and Acousto-Ultrasonics,” Wave Propagation and Emerging Technologies, AMD-Vol. 188, ASME, pp. 47–59.
Fowler, T. J., and Gray, E., 1979, “Development of an Acoustic Emission Test for FRP Equipment,” American Society of Civil Engineers Convention and Exposition, Preprint 3538, Boston, April 1979, pp. 1–22.
Isham, A. B., 1966, “Design of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Chemical Storage Tanks,” 21st Annual Meeting of the Reinforced Plastics Division, The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc., Chicago IL.
Ziehl, P., and Fowler, T. J., 2001, “Development of a Damage Based Design Criterion for Fiber Reinforced Polymer Vessels,” Proceedings of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, ASME, New York.
Dow Plastics, “Derakane Epoxy Vinyl Ester Resins,” Technical Product Information, March 1996.
Ashland Chemical, Technical Data, January 1998.
Ziehl,  P., and Fowler,  T., 2003, “Fiber Reinforced Polymer Vessel Design With a Damage Approach,” Journal of Composite Structures, in press.
ASTM D2584-94, 1994, “Standard Test Method for Ignition Loss of Cured Reinforced Resins,” American Society of Testing and Materials, Pennsylvania, PA.
The Committee on Acoustic Emission From Reinforced Plastics (CARP), 1999, “Recommended Practice for Acoustic Emission Evaluation of Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Tanks and Pressure Vessels,” Division of the Technical Council of The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc., Draft I.
Fowler, T. J., 1977, “Preprint 3092,” paper presented at The ASCE Fall Convention, San Francisco, CA, October 17–21, 1977; American Society of Civil Engineers, New York.
Gorman,  M. R., 1991, “Acoustic Emission in 2-D Carbon-Carbon Coupons in Tension,” J. Comp. Mater. ,25, pp. 703–714.
Whittaker,  J. W., Brosey,  W. D., and Hamstad,  M. A., 1990, “Felicity Ratio Behavior of Pneumatically and Hydraulically Loaded Spherical Composite Test Specimens,” J. Acoust. Emiss., 9(2), pp. 75–83.
Downs,  K. S., and Hamstad,  M. A., 1995, “Correlation of Acoustic Emission Felicity Ratios and Hold-Based Rate Moments With Burst Strengths of Spherical Graphite/Epoxy Pressure Vessels,” J. Acoust. Emiss., 13(3), pp. 45–55.
Fowler, T. J., Blessing, J. A., and Conlisk, P. J., 1989, “New Directions in Testing,” Third International Symposium on Acoustic Emission From Composite Materials, July 17–21, Paris, France, pp. 16–27.
Hamstad,  M. A., Whittaker,  J. W., and Brosey,  W. D., 1992, “Correlation of Residual Strength With Acoustic Emission From Impact-Damaged Composite Structures Under Constant Biaxial Load,” J. Comp. Mater.,26(15), pp. 2307–2328.
Gorman, M. R., and Rytting, T. H., 1983, “Long Duration AE Events in Filament Wound Graphite/Epoxy in the 100–300 KHz Band Pass Region,” First International Symposium on Acoustic Emission From Reinforced Composites, The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc.
Downs,  K. S., and Hamstad,  M. A., 1998, “Acoustic Emission From Depressurization to Detect/Evaluate Significance of Impact Damage to Graphite/Epoxy Pressure Vessels,” J. Comp. Mater. ,32(3), pp. 258–307.
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E1067, “Standard Practice for Acoustic Emission Examination of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Resin (FRP) Tanks and Vessels,” ASTM, Philadelphia, PA.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1995, “Reinforced Thermoset Plastic Corrosion Resistant Equipment,” ASME RTP-1, ASME, New York.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee, 1998, Subcommittee on Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels, “Section X: Fiber Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels,” 1998 Edition with subsequent addenda, ASME, New York.
Ramirez, G., and Engelhardt, M. D., 2002, “Use of Acoustic Emission for Determination of Endurance Limits of Fiberglass Pipes Built According to RTP-1 Specifications,” ASNT Journal of Research in Nondestructive Evaluation, Submitted for review.
Ramirez, G., and Engelhardt, M. D., 2000, “Results From Fatigue Tests of Composite Pipes,” International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineering, Seattle, WA.
British Standard for Design and Construction of Vessels and Tanks in Reinforced Plastics, 1987 BS4994-1987.
ISO/DIIS 11119, “Gas Cylinders of Composite Construction—Specification and Test Methods,” prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 58, Gas Cylinders, Sub-Committee SC3, Cylinder Design, International Organization for Standardization, Secretariat: British Standards Institute (UK).

Figures

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Coupon specimen geometry and AE sensor locations
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Seal detail for internal pressure tests
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Schematic of loading sequence for coupon specimens
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90 deg specimen fabricated with 411–350 resin (multiple AE plots)
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90 deg specimen fabricated with 411–350 resin (AE correlation plots)
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90 deg specimen fabricated with 8084 resin (multiple AE plots)
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0 deg specimen fabricated with 411 resin (multiple AE plots)
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Summary of fiberglass test results
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AE data recorded for TP-18
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Selected AE duration data recorded for TP-21
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Load versus micro-strain, 411–350 oriented fiber specimens
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Recorded strains for static tests
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Determination of AE knee for TP-15
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Static pressure tests: pressure at leakage versus pressure at RAM knee
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Static pressure tests: strain at leakage versus strain at RAM knee
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Difference between RAM pressure and pressure at leakage
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Hoop strains comparison for fiberglass cyclic specimens
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Cyclic pressure tests: pressure above RAM versus cycles to failure
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Damage, design, and failure strain of coupon specimens

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