Numerical and Experimental Study on the Cavitating Flow Characteristics of Pressurized Liquid Nitrogen in a Horizontal Rectangular Nozzle

[+] Author and Article Information
Jun Ishimoto

Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku Sendai 980-8577, Japanishimotojun@ieee.org

Masahiro Onishi

 Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd., 1-1, Subaru-cho, Ohta, Gunma 373-8555, Japan

Kenjiro Kamijo

Kakuda Propulsion Office,  The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), 1, Koukuzo, Jinjiro, Kakuda, Miyagi 981-1526, Japan

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 127(4), 515-524 (Dec 16, 2004) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1928916 History: Received March 25, 2004; Revised December 16, 2004

The thermodynamic effect on cryogenic cavitating flow characteristics of pressurized liquid nitrogen in a horizontal rectangular nozzle is precisely investigated by numerical analysis based on an unsteady thermal nonequilibrium two-fluid model and by flow visualization measurement. According to the numerical and experimental study, the sufficiently useful results are proposed to realize the further development and high performance of a type of cryogenic two-phase cooling system. It is numerically and experimentally found that the inception of cryogenic cavitation occurs and the cavity grows in the vicinity of the wall surface of the inlet throat section. It is also found that the continuous process and behavior of cavitation inception, cloud cavity growth, and gas phase diffusion behavior with time in pressurized liquid nitrogen are dominated not only by several additional forces in the gas-phase momentum equation, but also by the thermodynamic effect that acts on the cavitation bubbles due to the inherent properties of cryogenic fluid. Especially under conditions of the same temperature and same aspect ratio of the cloud cavity, similar generating behavior of cavitation can be often found in the high Reynolds number region in spite of large cavitation number.

Copyright © 2005 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Schematic of computational system used in numerical analysis

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Figure 2

Schematic of the whole experimental apparatus

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Figure 3

Rectangular nozzle in the visualization measurement section

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Figure 4

Time evolution of void fraction distributions (enlarged view of nozzle section); (a) numerical results, (b) visualization measurement results

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Figure 5

Instantaneous liquid phase pressure contours (numerical; enlarged view of nozzle section)

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Figure 6

Time evolution of liquid phase temperature profiles (numerical; enlarged view of nozzle section)

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Figure 7

Liquid phase pressure fluctuations in the upstream section and downstream section of the nozzle as a function of time (numerical and experimental results)

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Figure 8

Fluctuations of bubble radius at the inlet section of the nozzle throat as a function of time (numerical)

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Figure 9

Instantaneous liquid phase streamlines (numerical; enlarged view of nozzle section)

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Figure 10

Instantaneous gas phase streamlines (numerical; enlarged view of nozzle section)

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Figure 11

Effect of Reynolds number on cavitation number (numerical and experimental results)



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