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RESEARCH PAPERS

Use of Duplex Stainless Steel in Economic Design of a Pressure Vessel

[+] Author and Article Information
Milan Veljkovic, Jonas Gozzi

 Luleå University of Technology, Sweden

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 129(1), 155-161 (May 10, 2006) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2389034 History: Received December 22, 2005; Revised May 10, 2006

Pressure vessels have been used for a long time in various applications in oil, chemical, nuclear, and power industries. Although high-strength steels have been available in the last three decades, there are still some provisions in design codes that preclude a full exploitation of its properties. This was recognized by the European Equipment Industry and an initiative to improve economy and safe use of high-strength steels in the pressure vessel design was expressed in the evaluation report (Szusdziara, S., and McAllista, S., EPERC Report No. (97)005, Nov. 11, 1997). Duplex stainless steel (DSS) has a mixed structure which consists of ferrite and austenite stainless steels, with austenite between 40% and 60%. The current version of the European standard for unfired pressure vessels EN 13445:2002 contains an innovative design procedure based on Finite Element Analysis (FEA), called Design by Analysis-Direct Route (DBA-DR). According to EN 13445:2002 duplex stainless steels should be designed as a ferritic stainless steels. Such statement seems to penalize the DSS grades for the use in unfired pressure vessels (Bocquet, P., and Hukelmann, F., 2001, EPERC Bulletin, No. 5). The aim of this paper is to present an investigation performed by Luleå University of Technology within the ECOPRESS project (2000-2003) (http://www.ecopress.org), indicating possibilities towards economic design of pressure vessels made of the EN 1.4462, designation according to the European standard EN 10088-1 Stainless steels. The results show that FEA with von Mises yield criterion and isotropic hardening describe the material behaviour with a good agreement compared to tests and that 5% principal strain limit is too low and 12% is more appropriate.

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Figures

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Figure 1

Comparison of stress-strain relation between coupon tests along L and transverse to the rolling direction T

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Figure 2

Normalized results from uniaxial test of weld and HAZ

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Figure 3

The membrane test setup, the plate thickness was 4mm for all types of specimens.

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Figure 4

Comparison between results of three characteristic specimens

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Figure 5

Specimens after testing, the arrow indicates the rolling direction: (a) plain plate, (b) butt-welded plate, and (c) Plate with nozzle

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Figure 6

Summary of membrane test results, maximum load versus maximum bulge with test specimen mem1p as reference specimen.

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Figure 7

Finite element model of 1∕28 part of the nozzle specimen: (a) FE mesh of the specimen with nozzle and (b) displacement at the maximum load

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Figure 8

Comparison between experimental results and FE calculation: (a) global behavior of plain specimens, (b) global behavior of nozzle specimens, (c) measured and calculated resultant strains of plain specimens, and (d) measured and calculated resultant strains of nozzle specimens

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Figure 9

The simple pressure vessel modeled by solid elements: (a) geometry of the pressure vessel (in centimeters) and (b) detail of FE Model Showing the cylinder-nozzle intersection

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Figure 10

Influence of the constitutive model on the maximum load prediction

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Figure 11

Stress points corresponding to 0.2% plastic offset strain and the approximation using von Mises yield criterion (9)

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