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RESEARCH PAPERS

Hybrid Expansion Revisited

[+] Author and Article Information
Stanley Yokell

 MGT Inc., 4390 Caddo Parkway, Boulder, CO 80303-3607syokell@mgt-inc.com

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 129(3), 482-487 (Aug 21, 2006) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2748833 History: Received May 23, 2006; Revised August 21, 2006

This paper describes new hitherto unused procedures that combine hydraulic and explosive expanding to produce tube-to-tubesheet joints in tubular heat transfer equipment with thick tubesheets. This paper also interprets shear load test results and microscopic examination of polished and sectioned specimens used to validate the adequacy of the method for producing strong, leak tight joints. It concludes that the method is successful.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 6

Close-up of discontinuity where tube crosses groove edge. Magnification 175×.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 7

Ligament and adjacent tube walls showing intimate contact between tube walls and hole surfaces. Magnification 25×.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

VHX digital microscope

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 2

Marked sectioned and polished tube-to-tubesheet half-denoted specimen 1

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 3

Marked sectioned and polished tube-to-tubesheet half-denoted specimen 2

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 4

Typical tube-to-tubesheet weld showing unexpanded region remaining after two-stage expanding. Magnification 25×.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 5

Penetration of tube metal into groove showing modest discontinuity where tube crosses groove edge. Magnification 25×.

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