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RESEARCH PAPERS

Lateral Loading of Internally Pressurized Steel Pipes

[+] Author and Article Information
Arnold M. Gresnigt

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlandsa.m.gresnigt@citg.tudelft.nl

Spyros A. Karamanos1

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Thessaly, 38334 Volos, Greeceskara@mie.uth.gr

Kyros P. Andreadakis

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Thessaly, 38334 Volos, Greece

1

Corresponding author.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 129(4), 630-638 (Aug 07, 2006) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2767345 History: Received February 03, 2006; Revised August 07, 2006

This paper examines the denting response of pipes subjected to lateral (transverse) quasistatic wedge loading, in the presence of internal pressure. Pipes are modeled with nonlinear shell finite elements and a simplified analytical model. The analysis focuses on the significant influence of internal pressure on the denting resistance. Furthermore, the effects of wedge denting device orientation on the denting resistance are briefly discussed. Motivated by the experimental and numerical results, a two-dimensional heuristic model is proposed, which yields closed-form expressions for the denting force in terms of the corresponding displacement. The finite element results and the model equations are in good agreement with the experimental results and illustrate pipe denting response in an elegant manner.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 3

Finite element meshes of deformed pipes; (a) longitudinally oriented wedge denting tool; (b) transversely oriented wedge denting tool

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Figure 4

Comparison between experimental and finite element results for specimens A1, A2, and A3

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Figure 5

Comparison between experimental and finite element results for specimens B1, B2, and B3

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Figure 6

Comparison between experimental and finite element results for specimens C1 and C2

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Figure 7

Effect of internal pressure on the denting response of pipes; transverse orientation of denting tool

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Figure 8

Deformed shapes of indented pipes (x=δ∕R=0.7) with transverse orientation of denting tool; no pressure (top) and with pressure q=0.6 (bottom)

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Figure 2

Denting tests in pressurized pipe segments in test series B (11); (a) loading under transversely oriented wedge; (b) permanent deformation of specimen B2 under transversely oriented wedge; (c) permanent deformation of specimen B3 under longitudinally oriented wedge

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Figure 1

Laterally loaded pipe (top); denting tool geometries used in the experiments and in the numerical simulations (bottom)

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Figure 14

Schematic representation of membrane stretching action

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Figure 15

Work of pressure due to deformation of the four-hinge mechanism and change of enclosed area

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Figure 16

Comparison between experimental results and model predictions for specimens A1, A3, and B2

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Figure 9

Denting tool size effect on the denting response of pipes; transverse orientation of denting tool; numerical results

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Figure 10

Numerical results of denting under longitudinally oriented wedge denting tool; (a) response with no pressure; (b) response in the presence of pressure q=0.6

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Figure 11

Elastic response of transversely loaded cylinders; (a) real problem; (b) two-dimensional approximation at central section; (c) idealized problem of cylinder under two concentrated opposite radial loads Fe

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Figure 12

Four-hinge plastic mechanism under two opposite radial loads Fp and static equilibrium on quarter pipe

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Figure 13

Effect of nonuniform distribution of contact stresses in transversely oriented wedge denting tool; the shape of the deformed crosssection is obtained rigorously through the finite element analysis model

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