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Research Papers: Fluid-Structure Interaction

Flexural Waves in Fluid-Filled Tubes Subject to Axial Impact

[+] Author and Article Information
Kazuaki Inaba

Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125inaba@mech.titech.ac.jp

Joseph E. Shepherd

Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125joseph.e.shepherd@caltech.edu

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 132(2), 021302 (Jan 29, 2010) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000510 History: Received September 29, 2008; Revised June 22, 2009; Published January 29, 2010; Online January 29, 2010

We experimentally studied the propagation of coupled fluid stress waves and tube flexural waves generated through projectile impact along the axis of a water-filled tube. We tested mild steel tubes, 38–40 mm inner diameter and wall thicknesses of 0.8 mm, 6.4 mm, and 12.7 mm. A steel impactor was accelerated using an air cannon and struck a polycarbonate buffer placed on top of the water surface within the tube. Elastic flexural waves were observed for impact speeds of 5–10 m/s and plastic waves appeared for impact speeds approaching 20 m/s for a 0.8 mm thickness tube. We observed primary wave speeds of 1100 m/s in a 0.8 mm thickness tube, increasing to the water sound speed with 6.4 mm and 12.7 mm thickness tubes. Comparison of our measurements in the 0.8 mm thickness tube with Skalak’s water hammer theory indicates reasonable agreement between the predicted and measured peak strains as a function of the impact buffer speed (1956, “An Extension to the Theory of Water Hammer,” Trans. ASME, 78, pp. 105–116). For thick-walled tubes, the correlation between the experimentally determined peak pressures and strains reveals the importance of corrections for the through-wall stress distribution.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic diagram of axisymmetric water-in-tube configuration for generation of flexural waves in a shell coupling with stress waves propagating in water

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Figure 2

Experimental facility with reservoir (compressed gas driver), projectile, specimen tube, and gauges

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Figure 3

Buffer surface history in shot 34 (VP=16.1 m/s, PD=0.64 MPa)

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Figure 4

Hoop strain and end pressure histories—elastic waves in shot 28, VB=7.1 m/s (VP=9.1 m/s, PD=0.14 MPa)

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Figure 5

Longitudinal strain histories—elastic waves in shot 28

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Figure 6

Hoop and longitudinal strain histories—elastic waves in shot 28, gauge location 5 (350 mm from the bottom of specimen tube), VB=7.1 m/s (VP=9.1 m/s, PD=0.14 MPa)

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Figure 7

Ratio between hoop and longitudinal strains of Fig. 6

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Figure 8

Hoop strain and end pressure histories—plastic waves in shot 29, VB=16.6 m/s (VP=19.3 m/s, PD=0.65 MPa)

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Figure 9

Bulge near the closed-end bottom created by the reflection of the stress wave

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Figure 10

Longitudinal strain histories—shot 29

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Figure 11

Hoop and longitudinal strain histories—plastic waves in shot 29, gauge location 5, VB=16.6 m/s (VP=19.3 m/s, PD=0.65 MPa)

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Figure 12

Ratio between hoop and longitudinal strains of Fig. 1

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Figure 13

Precursor and primary wave speeds versu buffer speeds for specimen tubes 1–3

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Figure 14

Averaged peak hoop and longitudinal strains vs buffer speeds for specimen tubes 1–3

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Figure 15

Hoop-strain histories in shot 62 with specimen tube 5 (12.7 mm thick wall), VB=15.2 m/s (VP=18.5 m/s, PD=0.65 MPa)

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Figure 16

Longitudinal strain histories in shot 62 with specimen tube 5 (12.7 mm thick wall), VB=15.2 m/s (VP=18.5 m/s, PD=0.65 MPa)

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Figure 17

Side wall pressure histories at locations 1, 4, and 6 in shot 62 with specimen tube 5 (12.7 mm thick wall), VB=15.2 m/s (VP=18.5 m/s, PD=0.65 MPa)

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Figure 18

Primary hoop stress wave speeds vesus wall-thickness of specimen tubes

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Figure 19

Primary hoop strain versus side-wall pressure for 12.7 mm thick-walled tube

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