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Research Papers: Design and Analysis

Cyclic and Fatigue Behavior of the P355NL1 Steel Under Block Loading

[+] Author and Article Information
Hélder F. S. G. Pereira

 UCVE–IDMEC–Pólo FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugalhfpereira@portugalmail.pt

Abílio M. P. De Jesus

Mechanical Engineering, Department of Engineering, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Quinta de Prados, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugalajesus@utad.pt

Alfredo S. Ribeiro

Mechanical Engineering, Department of Engineering, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Quinta de Prados, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugalaribeiro@utad.pt

António A. Fernandes

Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugalaaf@fe.up.pt

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 131(2), 021210 (Jan 21, 2009) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3062965 History: Received August 06, 2007; Revised November 08, 2007; Published January 21, 2009

Current fatigue analyses of metallic structures undergoing variable amplitude loading, including pressure vessels, are mostly based on linear cumulative damage concepts, as proposed by Palmgren and Miner. This type of analysis neglects any sequential effects of the loading history. Several studies have shown that linear cumulative damage theories can produce inconsistent fatigue life predictions. In this paper, both fatigue damage accumulation and cyclic elastoplastic behaviors of the P355NL1 steel are characterized using block loading fatigue tests. The loading is composed of blocks of constant strain-controlled amplitudes, applied according to two and multiple alternate blocks sequences. Also, loading composed by blocks of variable strain-controlled amplitudes are investigated. The block loading illustrates that fatigue damage evolves nonlinearly with the number of load cycles, as a function of the block strain amplitudes. These observations suggest a nonlinear damage accumulation rule with load sequential effects for the P355NL1 steel. However, the damage accumulation nonlinearity and load sequential effects are more evident for the two block loading rather than for multiple alternate block sequences, which suggests that the linear Palmgren–Miner rule tends to produce better results for more irregular loading histories. Some phenomenological interpretations for the observed trends are discussed under a fracture mechanics framework.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Geometry of the specimens (dimensions in mm)

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Figure 2

Constant amplitude block loading (schematic)

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Figure 3

Strain range distributions for the variable amplitude blocks: (a) average strain range of 0.55% and standard deviation of 0.31%; (b) average strain range of 1.1% and standard deviation of 0.62%

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Figure 4

Variable amplitude block definitions

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Figure 5

Illustration of the nonlinear damage evolution and load sequential effects for two constant amplitude blocks

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Figure 6

Illustration of the nonlinear damage evolution and load sequential effects for multiple alternated constant amplitude block loading

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Figure 7

Stress amplitude versus cycles data of the P355NL1 steel under the H-L block loading (strain ranges of 1.5% and 0.75%)

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Figure 8

Cyclic mean stress versus cycles data of the P355NL1 steel under the H-L block loading (strain ranges of 1.5% and 0.75%)

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Figure 9

Stress amplitude versus cycle data of the P355NL1 steel under the L-H block loading (strain ranges of 1.5% and 0.75%)

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Figure 10

Cyclic mean stress versus cycle data of the P355NL1 steel under the L-H block loading (strain ranges of 1.5% and 0.75%)

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Figure 11

Stress amplitude versus cycle data of the P355NL1 steel under the H-L-H-L⋯ block loading (strain ranges of 1.5% and 0.75%)

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Figure 12

Cyclic mean stress versus cycle data of the P355NL1 steel under the H-L-H-L⋯ block loading (strain ranges of 1.5% and 0.75%)

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Figure 13

Stress amplitude versus cycle data of the P355NL1 steel under the L-H-L-H⋯ block loading (strain ranges 1.5% and 0.75%)

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Figure 14

Cyclic mean stress versus cycle data of the P355NL1 steel under the L-H-L-H⋯ block loading (strain ranges of 1.5% and 0.75%)

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Figure 15

Stress amplitude versus cycle data of the P355NL1 steel under H-L variable amplitude block loading (Δεmax=2.1%)

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Figure 16

Cyclic mean stress versus cycle data of the P355NL1 steel under the H-L variable amplitude block loading (Δεmax=2.1%)

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Figure 17

Stress amplitude versus cycle data of the P355NL1 steel under L-H variable amplitude block loading (Δεmax=1.05%)

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Figure 18

Cyclic mean stress versus cycle data of the P355NL1 steel under the L-H variable amplitude block loading (Δεmax=1.05%)

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Figure 19

Stress amplitude versus cycle data of the P355NL1 steel under L-H-L variable amplitude block loading (Δεmax=1.05%)

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Figure 20

Cyclic mean stress versus cycle data of the P355NL1 steel under the L-H-L variable amplitude block loading (Δεmax=1.05%)

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Figure 21

Fatigue data and predictions for two constant amplitude block loading defined by 0.5% and 1.0% strain ranges

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Figure 22

Fatigue data and predictions for two constant amplitude block loading defined by 0.75% and 1.5% strain ranges

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Figure 23

Fatigue data for multiple alternate constant amplitude block loading defined by 0.5% and 1.0% strain ranges

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Figure 24

Fatigue data for multiple alternate constant amplitude block loading defined by 0.75% and 1.5% strain ranges

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Figure 25

Fatigue crack growth at different stress amplitudes

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