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Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Ratcheting of Stainless Steel 304 Under Multiaxial Nonproportional Loading

[+] Author and Article Information
Kwang S. Kim

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784, Koreaillini@postech.ac.krDepartment of Aerospace and Engineering Mechanics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712illini@postech.ac.krSchool of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 30072, Chinaillini@postech.ac.krDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Kasatsu-shi, Shiga 525-8577, Japanillini@postech.ac.kr

Rong Jiao

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784, Koreajiaorong@mail.utexas.eduDepartment of Aerospace and Engineering Mechanics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712jiaorong@mail.utexas.eduSchool of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 30072, Chinajiaorong@mail.utexas.eduDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Kasatsu-shi, Shiga 525-8577, Japanjiaorong@mail.utexas.edu

Xu Chen

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784, Koreaxchen@tju.edu.cnDepartment of Aerospace and Engineering Mechanics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712xchen@tju.edu.cnSchool of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 30072, Chinaxchen@tju.edu.cnDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Kasatsu-shi, Shiga 525-8577, Japanxchen@tju.edu.cn

Masao Sakane

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784, Koreasakanem@se.ritsumei.ac.jpDepartment of Aerospace and Engineering Mechanics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712sakanem@se.ritsumei.ac.jpSchool of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 30072, Chinasakanem@se.ritsumei.ac.jpDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Kasatsu-shi, Shiga 525-8577, Japansakanem@se.ritsumei.ac.jp

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 131(2), 021405 (Dec 30, 2008) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3027498 History: Received May 03, 2007; Revised March 17, 2008; Published December 30, 2008

Multiaxial ratcheting is often simulated by use of nonlinear kinematic hardening models, while in reality materials show cyclic hardening/softening and additional hardening under nonproportional loading. The effect of isotropic hardening on ratcheting needs to be addressed in simulation. In this study, ratcheting tests are conducted on stainless steel 304 under uniaxial, torsional, and combined axial-torsional loading. The ratcheting strain is predicted based on the constitutive theory that incorporates a modified Ohno–Wang kinematic hardening rule and Tanaka’s isotropic hardening model. The results show that the main features of the stress-strain response can be simulated with the constitutive model. Ratcheting strain under axial mean stress depends highly on the loading path and load level, and the degree of cyclic changes in shear stress under torsional strain control is not as influential. The torsional ratcheting strain under mean shear stress with (or without) fully reversed axial strain cycling is found close to the axial ratcheting strain under equivalent mean stress with (or without) torsional strain cycling. In all, the experimental and predicted ratcheting strains for nonproportional paths are found in decent correlation. However, overprediction still prevails for some loading paths, and ratcheting rates deviate considerably from experimental values.

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Figures

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Figure 1

Tensile stress-stress curve of stainless steel 304

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Figure 2

Loading paths for ratcheting tests

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Figure 3

Variation in equivalent stress amplitude with the number of cycles: (a) uniaxial and torsional strain cycling and (b) circular strain cycling

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Figure 4

Equivalent axial stress-shear stress response in circular strain cycling with an amplitude of 0.8%: (a) model prediction and (b) experiment

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Figure 5

Ratcheting strain under uniaxial loading and torsional loading

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Figure 6

Comparison of predicted and experimental ratcheting strains for axial-torsional cycles

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Figure 7

Variation in maximum equivalent stress with cycles for Cases 3–5

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Figure 8

Comparison of Case 4 stress and strain responses between model prediction and experiment: (a) and (b) axial stress-shear stress response and (c) and (d) axial strain-shear strain response

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