0
Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Literature Survey of Gaseous Hydrogen Effects on the Mechanical Properties of Carbon and Low Alloy Steels

[+] Author and Article Information
P. S. Lam, R. L. Sindelar, A. J. Duncan, T. M. Adams

Materials Science and Technology, Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808

For carbon content greater than 0.12%, API 5L (1) specifies that CE=C+Mn/6+(Cr+Mo+V)/5+(Ni+Cu)/15.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 131(4), 041408 (Jul 07, 2009) (14 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3141435 History: Received January 28, 2009; Revised April 02, 2009; Published July 07, 2009

A compendium of mechanical properties of carbon and low alloy steels following hydrogen exposure has been assembled from literature sources. The property sets include yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, uniform elongation, reduction in area, threshold stress intensity factor, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth. These properties are from literature sources under a variety of test methods and conditions. The collection of literature data is by no means complete, but the diversity of data and dependency of results on test method are sufficient to warrant a design and implementation of a standardized test program. The program would be needed to enable a defensible demonstration of structural integrity of a pressurized hydrogen system. It is essential that the environmental variables be well-defined (e.g., the applicable hydrogen gas pressure range and the test strain rate) and the specimen preparation be realistically consistent (such as the techniques to charge hydrogen and to maintain the hydrogen concentration in the specimens).

Copyright © 2009 by U.S. Government
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

Elongation and reduction in area for 0.22% carbon steel in gaseous hydrogen up to 15.2 MPa (2205 psi (gauge) or 150 atm)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 2

The tensile strength of cold-drawn 0.22% carbon steel decreases when the ambient hydrogen pressure increases (5)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 3

The ductility of Armco iron (0.028% C), 0.22% C (normalized), and 0.45% C (unalloyed, normalized) carbon steel decreases when the ambient hydrogen pressure increases (6)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 4

Effect of ductility change as a function of carbon content for specimens in air (1 atm) and in high pressure hydrogen gas (150 atm), respectively (3)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 5

Comparison of the ductility for carbon steels in 68.9 MPa (10,000 psi (gauge)) helium and in 68.9 MPa (10,000 psi (gauge)) hydrogen

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 6

Metallography of un-notched tensile specimen indicated the formation of cracks in 68.9 MPa (10,000 psi (gauge)) hydrogen environment (3,7): (a) cross section and (b) crack configurations

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 7

Hydrogen lowered the 0.2% yield stresses of the carbon steels (P1: quenched and tempered and P2: controlled rolled at −10°C) (8)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 8

Hydrogen gas charged (left) and cathodically charged (right) tensile tests showed that the yield stresses were increased due to hydrogen in the materials (9)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 9

Temperature dependent embrittlement index for various materials (9)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 10

The change in reduction in area as a function of charge current density or hydrogen concentration for a line pipe material similar to X42 (10)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 11

Change in reduction in area as a function of exposing hydrogen pressure for Spanish line pipe materials using double-notched tensile specimens (10-11)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 12

Threshold stress intensity factors at crack arrest in various hydrogen pressures (15)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 13

Crack growth resistance (J-R) curves for A516 Grade 70 in air and in hydrogen (16)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 14

Hydrogen pressure-dependent fracture toughness for a Spanish line pipe material similar to API X42 (11)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 15

The crack growth resistance (J-R) curves for X42 base metal in 6.9 MPa (1000 psi (gauge)) pressure of nitrogen and in 6.9 MPa of hydrogen (12)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 16

The J-R curves for API 5L Grade B in 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) nitrogen and in 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) hydrogen (19)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 17

The pressure-dependent JIC for API 5L Grade B in hydrogen (19)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 18

Fatigue crack growth rates (da/dN) for (a) X42 and (b) X70 in 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) hydrogen and in 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) nitrogen at stress ratio R=0.1(12)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 19

Fatigue crack growth rates (da/dN) for X42 in hydrogen and in nitrogen at various stress ratios (R)(12)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 20

Fatigue crack growth rates (da/dN) for as-rolled and normalized API 5L Grade B steels in various pressures of hydrogen (1 Hz) and in air (10 Hz) (19)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 21

Fatigue crack growth rates (da/dN) for as-rolled and normalized API 5L Grade B steels as a function of hydrogen pressure (19)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 22

Fatigue crack growth rate for ASME SA-105 Grade II steel exposed to hydrogen up to 15,000 psi under R=0.1 and 0.1 Hz cyclic load (22)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 23

Cyclic frequency effects on ASME SA-105 Grade II steel in 15,000 psi hydrogen (R=0.1)(22)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In