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Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Spatially Resolved Materials Property Data From a Uniaxial Cross-Weld Tensile Test

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Turski

School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS, UK; Materials Engineering, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UKmark.turski@magnesium-elektron.com

M. C. Smith

 British Energy Generation Ltd., Barnett Way, Barnwood, Gloucester GL4 3RS, UK

P. J. Bouchard, L. Edwards

Materials Engineering, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK

P. J. Withers

School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS, UK

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 131(6), 061406 (Oct 28, 2009) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000196 History: Received April 25, 2008; Revised June 25, 2009; Published October 28, 2009

Application of electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) is described to measure the spatial variation in monotonic tensile stress-strain properties along “cross-weld” specimens machined from a stainless steel three-pass welded plate. The technique, which could also be done with digital image correlation, was applied to quantify how the material 0.2%, 1%, 2%, 5%, 10%, and 20% proof stress varied with distance from the center-line of the weldment for parent and weld material associated with the first and final passes. The stress-strain curves measured by the ESPI method correlated closely with stress-strain data measured using conventional test specimens. The measured results are consistent with the hypothesis that thermo-mechanical cycles associated with the welding process work harden previously deposited (single-pass) weld metal and the surrounding parent material. The stress-strain response of the heat affected zone adjacent to the first weld pass is consistent with an accumulated (equivalent monotonic) plastic strain of 6.5% and that of the first pass weld bead was consistent with an accumulated plastic strain of approximately 4% greater than the state of the final pass weld metal.

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Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 10

Comparing the stress-strain response of selected regions in the upper (pass 3) ESPI specimen with conventional tensile data for the parent plate and single-pass weld metal (top) with scale drawing (bottom) showing the region of weld metal through the thickness of the final pass weld bead tensile test sample

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Figure 12

Comparing the response of HAZ material with unstrained parent material, and pass 1 weld metal with pass 3 weld metal. The HAZ and pass 3 weld curves are offset to match the postyield response.

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Figure 13

Predicted longitudinal residual stresses through the wall-thickness at midlength/mid-width of groove weldment 2.1.4 based on isotropic (baseline) and mixed hardening stress-strain models compared with neutron diffraction (ND) and contour method stress measurements (3,6)

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Figure 11

Comparing the stress-strain response of selected regions in the lower (pass 1) ESPI specimen with conventional tensile data for the parent plate and single-pass weld metal (top) with scale drawing (bottom) showing the region of weld metal through the thickness of the first weld bead tensile test sample.

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Figure 1

Map of Vickers hardness over a transverse cross section (inside face of 50 mm offcut shown in Fig. 3) of the three-pass groove weld specimen 2.1.4 (a) overlaid over weld macrograph (b) plotted as colour contours. All distances are in millimetres.

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Figure 9

(a) A plot of proof stress against position on the final pass cross-weld tensile test specimen and (b) the same plot for the final pass cross-weld tensile test specimen. A schematic of the appropriate cross-weld test specimen has also been drawn to scale and overlaid on each graph.

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Figure 8

Schematic diagram summarizing the data analysis steps involved in generating proof stress values from ESPI measurements

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Figure 7

Schematic of experimental setup during ESPI measurement. The ESPI unit is connected to the tensile test machine crosshead via a pulley, resulting in the ESPI unit tracking the center of the cross-weld tensile test sample.

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Figure 6

An image of the cross-weld tensile test specimen as taken by the ESPI unit before the start of the tensile test (left). The second image (right) is a phase shifted image taken during an early stage (elastic deformation) of the cross-weld tensile test, showing fringes sensitive to y-direction displacement. The rectangle marked on each image represents the region on the sample from which measurements have been extracted.

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Figure 5

Macrograph of the three-pass groove weld specimen 2.1.4. The fusion boundaries of each weld bead are outlined and the locations of the cross-weld tensile test specimens are shown.

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Figure 4

50 mm section cut from the weld stop end of the three-pass groove weld specimen 2.1.4. The exact location from which cross-weld tensile test samples were extracted is drawn to scale.

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Figure 3

Three-pass groove weld specimen 2.1.4

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Figure 2

Typical evolutionary cyclic stress-strain data for single-pass weld metal at 600°C(1)

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