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Research Papers: NDE

Comparison of Neutron and Synchrotron Diffraction Measurements of Residual Stress in Bead-on-Plate Weldments

[+] Author and Article Information
Anna M. Paradowska

ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Science and Technology Facility Council, Didcot OX11 0QX, UKanna.paradowska@stfc.ac.uk

John W. H. Price, Raafat Ibrahim

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia

Trevor R. Finlayson

School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia

Ulrich Lienert

Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 132(1), 011502 (Jan 04, 2010) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000344 History: Received May 24, 2007; Revised July 21, 2009; Published January 04, 2010; Online January 04, 2010

This paper explores the use of neutron and synchrotron diffractions for the evaluation of residual stresses in welded components. It has been shown that it is possible to achieve very good agreement between the two independent diffraction techniques. This study shows the significance of the weld start and end sites on the residual strain/stress distribution. Quantitative evaluation of the residual stress development process for multibead weldments has been presented. Some measurements were also taken before and after postweld stress relieving to establish the reduction and redistribution of the residual stress. The detailed measurements of residual stress around the weld achieved in this work significantly improve the knowledge and understanding of residual stress in welded components.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Optical macrographs of (a) sample I showing parent metal, PM, weld metal, WM, and HAZ showing bead sequence, (b) sample II, (c) sample III, and (d) sample IV

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Figure 2

Vickers hardness measurements before and after PWHT for sample I

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Figure 3

(a) Principles of the neutron diffraction technique showing a Bragg reflection from the crystal plane d and (b) the locations of the scans using ND and SD (dotted line) on the single bead-on-plate (sample I)

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Figure 4

The comb specimens used to find the stress-free parameter do

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Figure 5

Schematic showing low angle transmission experimental set up for SD at the APS

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Figure 6

Comparison of residual (a) strain and (b) stress measured by SD and ND for sample I (measurements taken 1.5 mm below the surface). Note that to achieve the comparison of RS between ND and SD the assumption was made that the normal stress is zero for SD (SD. cal. normal). The error bars for the SD measurements are smaller than the size of the data points (on an average of 7MPa in the PM and 10 MPa in the HAZ and WM).

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Figure 7

Comparison of RS measured by SD sample I: (a) longitudinal and (b) transverse direction (measurements taken 1.5 mm below the surface). See note on error bars for SD on Fig. 6.

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Figure 8

Comparison of residual strain distribution measured by SD and ND for sample III (1.5 mm below the surface). Note that the error bars for the SD measurements are smaller than the size of the data points (on an average of 20 microstrains in the PM and 30 microstrain in the HAZ and WM).

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Figure 9

Comparison of longitudinal RS measured by SD for samples I, II, and III (measurements taken 1.5 mm below the surface). See note on error bars for SD on Fig. 6.

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Figure 10

Comparison longitudinal RS measured by ND and SD for sample III and by ND for sample IV (measurements taken 1.5 mm below the surface). See note on error bars for SD on Fig. 6.

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