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Research Papers: NDE

Comparison of Neutron Diffraction Measurements of Residual Stress of Steel Butt Welds With Current Fitness-for-Purpose Assessments

[+] Author and Article Information
Anna M. Paradowska1

Science and Technology Facility Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, ISIS Facility, OX11 0QX, UKanna.paradowska@stfc.ac.uk

John W. H. Price, Raafat Ibrahim

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia

Trevor R. Finlayson

School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia

Ronald B. Rogge, Ronald L. Donaberger

Chalk River Laboratories, Canadian Neutron Beam Centre (CNBC), ON, K0J 1J0, Canada

1

Corresponding author.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 132(5), 051503 (Oct 01, 2010) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002162 History: Received August 12, 2008; Revised September 30, 2009; Published October 01, 2010

In this research, the neutron diffraction technique was used to investigate the residual stress distributions in constrained carbon steel welds. Two full penetration welds were studied using (a) the stringer bead and (b) the temper bead weld techniques in 25 mm thick plate. The welds were not post-weld heat treated. The focus of the measurements is on the values of the subsurface and through-thickness strain/stress variation near the middle of the weld and the toe. The experimental results showed that both processes had high residual stresses particularly through the thickness. The measurements were compared with current fitness-for-purpose approaches, such as BS7910 and R6. It was found that the residual stress distribution in the temper bead welded specimen was not as favorable as suspected and post-weld heat treatment should be recommended to reduce residual tensile stresses in this type of steel welds.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic illustration of (a) preparation for full penetration welds using (b) sample I (SW) and (c) sample II (TBW) techniques (dotted lines represent the line scans for ND measurements)

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Figure 2

Sample II (TBW): (a) first tempering layer on one side of the joined plates and (b) overview of the completed sample (the crown or reinforcement is ground off in the center of the weld)

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Figure 3

The strain scanning diffractometer at the Chalk River facility. Samples I (SW) and II (TBW) in position to measure the strain in the transverse (x) direction. Gray-dotted line represents the locations of the surface scan using ND on both samples. The gauge volumes were centered 1.6 mm below the surface of the plate.

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Figure 4

Comparison of surface residual stress distributions in BS 7910 and R6 level 2 for a ferritic butt weld (a), longitudinal (b), and transverse (c) directions (W is the width of observable weld)

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Figure 5

Comparison of through-thickness distributions of residual stress in BS 7910 and R6 level 2 for (a) longitudinal and (b) transverse directions

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Figure 6

Comparison of NRS distributions for sample I (SW) with the estimates of BS 7910 and R6 for (a) longitudinal and (b) transverse directions (1.6 mm below the surface)

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Figure 7

Comparison of NRS distributions for sample II (TBW) for (a) longitudinal and (b) transverse directions (1.6 mm below the surface)

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Figure 8

Comparison of through-thickness NRS distribution for samples I (SW) and II (TBW) for (a) longitudinal and (b) transverse directions (x=0 the center line of weld, as shown on Fig. 1)

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