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Research Papers: Seismic Engineering

Vibration Test of a 1/10 Reduced Scale Model of Cylindrical Water Storage Tank

[+] Author and Article Information
Akira Maekawa

 Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc., 64 Sata, Mihama-cho, Mikata-gun, Fukui 919-1205, Japanmaekawa@inss.co.jp

Yasutaka Shimizu

 Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., 1-1, Ohshima, Ohi-cho, Ohi-gun, Fukui 919-2101, Japanshimizu.yasutaka@c5.kepco.co.jp

Michiaki Suzuki

 Kawasaki Plant Systems, Ltd., 11-1, Minamisuna, 2-chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 136-8588, Japansuzuki_m@khi.co.jp

Katsuhisa Fujita

 Osaka City University, 3-3-138, Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585, Japanfujita@mech.eng.osaka-cu.au.jp

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 132(5), 051801 (Aug 31, 2010) (13 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001915 History: Received June 09, 2006; Revised May 08, 2010; Published August 31, 2010; Online August 31, 2010

This paper describes the results of vibration tests using a 1/10 reduced scale model of large-scale cylindrical water storage tanks to clarify their dynamic behavior under seismic excitation. The thin sidewall of the tanks is not so rigid that the vibration modes (sloshing and bulging) induced by earthquake can affect the distribution of their liquid pressure and seismic load. It is, therefore, important for the seismic design of water storage tanks to consider such elastic deformation theoretically and experimentally. In this study, vibration tests by shaking table are conducted using a reduced scale tank model partially filled with water to investigate the dynamic fluid pressure behavior and seismic-proof safety of the tanks. A small sinusoidal excitation test, large amplitude sinusoidal excitation test and seismic excitation test are conducted. The measured values are compared with the calculated ones by some conventional seismic design methods. The results reveal that the distribution shape and magnitude of the dynamic fluid pressure are different between under positive and negative pressures and depend on the magnitude of input acceleration. Further examination concludes that the oval-type vibration, which is a high-order vibration mode, occurring on the sidewall of the tanks affects the distribution shape and magnitude of dynamic fluid pressure. However, it is demonstrated that the vibration does not act as a seismic load in the conventional evaluation of seismic-proof safety.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Measurement and control system of vibration test apparatus

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Figure 2

Photo of test tank

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Figure 3

Schematic view of test tank

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Figure 4

Locations of sensors

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Figure 5

Positive and negative pressures of dynamic fluid pressure

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Figure 6

Analytical model of cylindrical water storage tank

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Figure 7

Phase difference among dynamic fluid pressure, acceleration and displacement excited at (a) 1 Hz, (b) 5 Hz, and (c) 53 Hz

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Figure 8

Distribution of negative pressure (left side) and positive pressure (right side) of dynamic fluid pressure (sinusoidal excitation frequency: (a) 1 Hz, (b) 5 Hz, and (c) 53 Hz and input acceleration: (a) 0.013 G, (b) 0.28 G, and (c) 0.29 G)

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Figure 9

Distribution of dynamic fluid pressure under sinusoidal excitation of 53 Hz (input acceleration: (a) 0.20 G, (b) 0.29 G, and (c) 0.37 G)

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Figure 10

Oval-type vibration of tank subjected to sinusoidal wave excitation of 53 Hz

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Figure 11

Frequency analysis of oval-type vibration under sinusoidal wave excitation of 53 Hz (left side) and calculated natural frequency of tank shell (right side)

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Figure 12

Time history of input seismic waves: (a) El Centro 1940 NS (EL wave) and (b) standard wave for seismic design of Japanese LWR (KH wave)

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Figure 13

Distribution of negative pressure (left side) and positive pressure (right side) of dynamic fluid pressure obtained under seismic excitation of (a) EL wave and (b) KH wave (max. input acceleration: (a) 0.95 G and (b) 0.82 G)

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Figure 14

Oval-type vibration of tank subjected to seismic wave excitation: (a) EL wave and (b) KH wave

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Figure 15

Frequency analysis of oval-type vibration under seismic excitation (left side), and calculated natural frequency of tank shell (right side)

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Figure 16

Time history of input acceleration used for large amplitude sinusoidal excitation test

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Figure 17

Relationship between distribution of dynamic fluid pressure and magnitude of input acceleration: (a) negative pressure and (b) positive pressure

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Figure 18

Measurements and FEM calculations of positive dynamic fluid pressure (input acceleration: (a) 0.73 G, (b) 1.12 G, (c) 1.41 G, and (d) 1.57 G)

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Figure 19

Measurements and FEM calculations of negative dynamic fluid pressure (input acceleration: (a) 0.98 G, (b) 1.29 G, (c) 1.55 G, and (d) 1.62 G)

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Figure 20

Average of absolute values of positive and negative pressure measurements shown in Figs.  1819 and FEM calculations

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Figure 21

Frequency analysis of oval-type vibration under large amplitude sinusoidal excitation (left side) and calculated natural frequency of tank shell (right side)

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Figure 22

Superposition of distribution of dynamic fluid pressure caused by oval-type vibration on that caused by beam-type vibration

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Figure 23

Measurements and calculations for (a) shearing force and (b) bending moment under large amplitude sinusoidal excitation

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Figure 24

Measurements and calculations for (a) shearing force and (b) bending moment under seismic excitation using EL wave

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Figure 25

Measurements and calculations for (a) shearing force and (b) bending moment under seismic excitation using KH wave

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