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Research Papers: Design and Analysis

A Novel Optical Method for Real-Time Control of Bolt Tightening

[+] Author and Article Information
Aidong Meng, Sayed A. Nassar

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fastening and Joining Research Institute,  Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309

Douglas Templeton

US Army TARDEC, Warren, MI 48397-5000

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 133(6), 061211 (Nov 04, 2011) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004797 History: Received September 29, 2010; Revised July 07, 2011; Published November 04, 2011; Online November 04, 2011

A digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) system is developed for the real-time measurement and monitoring of the out-of-plane surface deformation around a preloaded bolt head or nut. The proposed system is specifically developed for the dynamic control of the bolt tightening process by continuously monitoring the out-of-plane joint surface deformation that will have been independently correlated to the bolt preload. Spatial phase shifting is employed to quantitatively determine the distribution of phase data by introducing a spatial carrier fringe pattern to the speckle interferogram. This is achieved by leading the object and reference beams through two separate apertures. The configuration is also suitable for collecting the real-time surface deformation during bolt tightening. The experimental DSPI system is set-up with optical components on a vibration-isolation table. A MATLAB software is developed for image acquisition and phase data calculations that yield the out-of-plane surface deformation caused by the bolt preload. The test fixture uses an M12 steel fastener and aluminum joint. For miniature screw applications, however, a plastic joint is used.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic diagram of DSPI system for out-of-plane deformation measurement

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Figure 2

Formation of the speckle carrier fringes

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Figure 3

Experimental set-up of DSPI

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Figure 4

Plan view of test coupon and illuminated area

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Figure 5

Speckle correlation fringes for the plastic joint

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Figure 6

Unfiltered phase map for the plastic joint

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Figure 7

Distribution of out-of-plane deformation w (μm) in the plastic joint

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Figure 8

Distribution of out-of-plane deformation in the plastic joint with rigid body tilting removed

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Figure 9

Three-dimensional display of out-of-plane deformation in the plastic joint

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Figure 10

Distribution of out-of-plane deformation w (μm) in the aluminum joint under 1400 N clamp load

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Figure 11

Distribution of out-of-plane deformation w (μm) in the aluminum joint under 3000 N clamp load

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