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Research Papers: Design and Analysis

Welding Induced Distortions and Strains of a Built-Up Panel, Experiment and Numerical Validation

[+] Author and Article Information
Christopher Bayley

 DRDC Atlantic, Dockyard Laboratory Pacific, CFB Esquimalt, Building 199(D), P.O. Box 17000 Stn Forces, Victoria, BC, V9A 7N2, CanadaChristopher.Bayley@drdc-rddc.gc.ca

John Goldak

Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering,  Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, K1S 5B6, Canadajgoldak@mrco2.carleton.ca

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 134(2), 021212 (Mar 13, 2012) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004620 History: Received October 21, 2010; Revised May 20, 2011; Published March 13, 2012; Online March 13, 2012

Weld build-up or weld cladding is a welding process in which weld metal can be deposited in order to reclaim the material thickness. In certain applications, welding induced distortions must be controlled while simultaneously minimizing welding induced residual strains. In order to examine the relative effect of the weld build-up region on welding induced distortion and residual strains, two panels were fabricated with either a small 100 × 100 × 3 or large 200 × 200 × 3 mm depression that was subsequently filled by welding. During welding, the strains, displacements, and temperature were continuously monitored in order to compare the transient solution with companion finite element method (FEM) models of the same structures. The coupled thermo-mechanical problem was solved using Goldak Technology Inc., vrsuite program, with the level of agreement of the measured distortions, strains, and temperature profiles dependent on their location and history. Both the numerical and experimental tests showed that despite the differences in the geometry, both panels developed the same strain state, although the large welded patch had greater peak value and larger distortions.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Overview of the small panel prior to welding. The large panel was identical except for the larger trough.

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Figure 2

Experimental and virtual weld build-up panels showing the location of the front-side strain gauges and thermocouples

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Figure 3

Thermal and strain measurement locations for the small (left) and large (right) panels

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Figure 4

Experimental (a) strain and (b) thermal history for select gauges during the weld build-up of the large panel

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Figure 5

FEM model showing the weld pass location and pass sequence used to symmetrically fill the milled depression

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Figure 6

Experimental and simulated thermal histories for TC1 acquired on the small panel

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Figure 7

Final (a) predicted and (b) measured displacements using the same color scale

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Figure 8

Color micro-strain magnitude and location of strain gauges for the large weld patch. Negative values denote a compressive strain while positive values a tensile strain.

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Figure 9

Strain evolution for the upper side gauges on the large and small panels

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Figure 10

Single point comparison of (a) front and (b) back side strains at the final time step. The labels represent the gauge numbers which are identified in Fig. 8.

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Figure 11

Strain history plots for gauges 14 and 17 from the small panels. These gauges are located on the apex of the distortion and subjected to the highest strains.

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Figure 12

Strain history plots for gauges 14 and 17 from the large panels. These gauges are located on the apex of the distortion and subjected to the highest strains.

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Figure 13

Mean difference between the numerical and experimental micro strains for all gauges during the welding of the first and second layers

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