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Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Effect of Welding Conditions on Residual Stress and Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior at Butt-Welding Joints of Stainless Steel Pipes

[+] Author and Article Information
Jinya Katsuyama, Tohru Tobita, Kunio Onizawa

Nuclear Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195, Japan

Hiroto Itoh1

Nuclear Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195, Japan

1

Present address: Advanced Algorithm and Systems Co., Lts, 1-13-6 Ebisu, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-0013, Japan.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 134(2), 021403 (Jan 11, 2012) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005391 History: Received September 21, 2010; Accepted October 21, 2011; Revised October 21, 2011; Published January 11, 2012; Online January 11, 2012

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in Type 316 L low-carbon austenitic stainless steel recirculation pipes have been observed near butt-welding joints. These SCC in Type 316 L stainless steel grow near the welding zone mainly because of the high tensile residual stress caused by welding. Therefore, for SCC growth analysis, it is important to assess the residual stress caused by welding of stainless steel piping. In the present study, which is focused on the scatters of welding parameters such as heat input and welding speed, these values were measured experimentally by fabricating a series of butt-welded specimens of Type 316 pipes. The distribution and scatter of residual stress were also measured by stress relief and X-ray diffraction methods. The effects of welding parameters on residual stress distribution have been evaluated through welding simulations based on finite-element analysis using three-dimensional and axisymmetric models. Parametric analyses were also performed, while taking into account the variation of some welding parameters based on the experiments. SCC growth behavior was calculated using simulated residual stress distributions and applying a procedure in the fitness-for-service code. It was clearly shown that the uncertainties on welding heat input and speed have strong influences on SCC growth behavior because residual stress is also affected by the scatter of these welding parameters.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Groove shape of produced specimen and three-dimensional FEA model

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Figure 2

Scatters of welding parameters of heat input (a) and welding speed (b) for each welding pass

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Figure 3

Double ellipsoid heat source model [12]

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Figure 4

Shape and modeling of crack and analysis method of crack growth

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Figure 5

Crack growth rate as a function of stress intensity factor provided by JSME code on Fitness-for-Service [18]

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Figure 6

Comparison of temperature histories simulated by FEA and measured experimentally

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Figure 7

Comparison of residual stress distribution between FEA and measurements: (a) circumferential stress at inner surface, (b) circumferential stress at outer surface, (c) axial stress at inner surface, and (d) axial stress at outer surface

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Figure 8

Comparison of residual stress distribution between 3D and axisymmetric analysis: (a) circumferential stress at inner surface, (b) circumferential stress at outer surface, (c) axial stress at inner surface, and (d) axial stress at outer surface

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Figure 9

Comparison of the circumferential and axial residual stress distributions between 3D and axisymmetric analysis as a function of through-thickness distance from inner surface in the central cross section of the weld

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Figure 10

Effect of heat input of the final pass on axial residual stress distribution on inner surface (a) and outer surface (b) as a function of distance from the welding line

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Figure 11

Effect of heat input of the final pass on through-thickness distribution of axial residual stress at the central cross section of the weld

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Figure 12

Effect of welding speed of the final pass on axial residual stress distribution on the inner surface (a) and outer surface (b) as a function of distance from welding line

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Figure 13

Effect of welding speed of the final pass on through-thickness distribution of axial residual stress at the central cross section of the weld

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Figure 14

Comparisons of time dependencies of SIF at the deepest point of crack tip (a) and crack depth (b) between three-dimensional and axisymmetric analyses

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Figure 15

Through-thickness axial residual stress distribution by three-dimensional and axisymmetric analyses

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Figure 16

Through-thickness axial residual stress distribution with different heat inputs of last welding pass for same welding speed

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Figure 17

Time dependencies of SIF at the deepest point of crack tip (a) and crack depth (b) with different heat inputs of last welding pass for same welding speed

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Figure 18

Time dependencies of SIF at the surface point (a) and crack length along inner surface (b) with different heat inputs of last welding pass for same welding speed

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Figure 19

Time dependency of aspect ratio with different heat inputs of last welding pass for same welding speed

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Figure 20

Through-thickness axial residual stress distribution with different heat inputs and welding speed of last welding pass

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Figure 21

Time dependencies of SIF at the deepest point of crack tip (a) and crack depth (b) with different heat inputs and welding speed of last welding pass

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Figure 22

Effect of scatters of heat input and welding speed of last welding pass on endurance time corresponding to crack depth of 0.8 of pipe thickness near the welding zone of recirculation pipes

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