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Commentary

Development of ASME Section X Code Rules for High Pressure Composite Hydrogen Pressure Vessels With Nonload Sharing Liners

[+] Author and Article Information
Norman L. Newhouse

 Lincoln Composites, Inc., 5117 NW 40th Street, Lincoln, NE 68524nnewhouse@lincolncomposites.com

George B. Rawls

 Savannah River National Laboratory, Building 773-41A, Room 173, Aiken, SC 29808george.rawls@srnl.doe.gov

Mahendra D. Rana

 Praxair, Inc., 175 East Park Drive, Tonawanda, NY 14151Mahendra_Rana@Praxair.com

Bernard F. Shelley

 DuPont Engineering Company, P.O. Box 80722, Wilmington, DE 19880bernard.f.shelley@usa.dupont.com

Michael R. Gorman

 Digital Wave Corporation, 6555 S. Kenton Street, Suite 304, Centennial, CO 80111mgorman@digitalwavecorp.com

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 134(3), 030402 (May 30, 2012) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005856 History: Received December 22, 2010; Revised October 31, 2011; Published May 30, 2012

The purpose of this paper is to document the development of ASME Section X Code rules for high pressure vessels for containing hydrogen and to provide a technical basis of their content. The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Project Team on Hydrogen Tanks was formed in 2004 to develop Code rules to address the various needs that had been identified for the design and construction of up to 15,000 psi hydrogen storage vessel. One of these needs was the development of Code rules for high pressure composite vessels with nonload sharing liners for stationary applications. In 2009, ASME approved new Appendix 8, for Section X Code which contains the rules for these vessels. These vessels are designated as Class III vessels with design pressure ranging from 21 MPa (3000 psi) to 105 MPa (15,000 psi) and maximum allowable outside liner diameter of 2.54 m (100 in.). The maximum design life of these vessels is limited to 20 years. Design, fabrication, and examination requirements have been specified, including Acoustic Emission testing at the time of manufacture. The Code rules include the design qualification testing of prototype vessels. Qualification includes proof, expansion, burst, cyclic fatigue, creep, flaw, permeability, torque, penetration, and environmental testing.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

ASME Section X Class I vessels (strapped to hydraulic cylinders)

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Figure 2

Large composite pressure vessels

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Figure 3

Typical cumulative events versus time curves for first arrival channel in a test with four channels (four AE sensors). Hold pressure was 18,000 psi, which was 1.8 times operating pressure. The vertical lines mark the pressure hold region. This is the behavior of a good vessel. The cumulative events exhibit a strong negative exponential curvature with time during pressure hold. Each point represents an event and the four waveforms recorded for the event.

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Figure 4

Event decay rate for data shows rate is exponentially approaching zero. Vessel is well-behaved

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