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Research Papers: Fluid-Structure Interaction

Experimental and Numerical Techniques in Fluids

[+] Author and Article Information
Franz Durst

Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstrasse 4, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 130(1), 011304 (Feb 08, 2008) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2826406 History: Received January 11, 2006; Revised December 22, 2006; Published February 08, 2008

The development of fluid mechanics is briefly reviewed, and the importance of fluid flows to heat and mass transport in nature and also in science and engineering is outlined. The early theoretical developments are explained, and it is indicated that the basic equations were already available at the end of the 18th century. Methods to solve these equations for engineering flows were not, however, developed until the second half of the 20th century. This was an important period for fluid flow research during which all the experimental fluid mechanics methods, particularly the optical methods, available today were also developed. The same is true for all the numerical methods that are used very successfully nowadays to solve scientific and engineering fluid flow problems. The Institute of Fluid Mechanics at the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg has contributed extensively to these developments.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Historical record of scientists contributing to the development of fluid mechanics

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Figure 2

Speed-up of numerical computations due to numerical methods (a) and increase in computer power (b)

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Figure 3

Flow visualization is the start of good fluid mechanics research

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Figure 4

Flow visualization based on results of numerical flow predictions

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Figure 5

Demonstration of complex flow information in path, streak, and stream lines

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Figure 6

Scattering particles with high scattering efficiency and good flow velocity response

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Figure 7

Dual beam laser-Doppler optical system

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Figure 8

Two-component laser-Doppler optical system

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Figure 9

LDA investigations of turbulent channel flows

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Figure 10

Wall values of turbulence levels in fully developed channel flows

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Figure 11

Phase-Doppler measurements in two phase-flows

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Figure 12

Principle of operation and sketch of optics of a phase-Doppler anemometer

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Figure 13

Typical result of local time and velocity measurements in sprays

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Figure 14

Optical system for extended phase-Doppler measurements

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Figure 15

Refractive index measurements using extended phase-Doppler anemometer

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Figure 16

Pulsed illuminating beam and photographic image plane

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Figure 17

Flow against a vertical plate visualized by smoke and velocity distribution measured by PIV, results by Uemura (15)

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Figure 18

Sketch of optical arrangement of Doppler global velocimeter, Meyers and Lee (17)

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Figure 19

Comparison of numerical and experimental values of the velocity correction factor CU in cases of walls with low conductivities: (a) CU=1.0, (b) CU>1.0, and (c) CU<1.0

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Figure 20

Schematic temperature influence region of a hot wire and the heat exchange process between the fluid and the solid wall at various wire to wall distances Y+

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Figure 21

Three dimensional, time dependent turbulent flow visualized by LIC (left) and temperature distribution (right) in an industrial Cz crucible, horizontal plane directly below the free surface

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Figure 22

Three dimensional, time dependent turbulent flow visualized by LIC (left) and temperature distribution (right) in an industrial Cz crucible, vertical plane through the center of the crucible

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