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Research Papers: NDE

Neutron Diffraction Evaluation of Residual Stress for Several Welding Arrangements and Comparison With Fitness-for-Purpose Assessments

[+] Author and Article Information
Anna M. Pardowska

Department of Mechanical Engineering,  Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australiaa.paradowska@rl.ac.uk

John W. Price

Department of Mechanical Engineering,  Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australiajohn.price@eng.monash.edu.au

Raafat Ibrahim

Department of Mechanical Engineering,  Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australiaraafat.ibrahim@eng.monash.edu.au

Trevor R. Finlayson

School of Physics,  Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australiatrevor.finlayson@sci.monash.edu.au

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 130(1), 011501 (Jan 23, 2008) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2826449 History: Received April 08, 2006; Revised October 25, 2006; Published January 23, 2008

In this research, the neutron diffraction technique was used to investigate and compare the residual stress characteristics in several weld arrangements. This research has focused on the effects on residual stress of restraint condition applied during welding, the start and end of the weld for a single bead, and increasing the number of passes. The measured residual stress distributions are normalized by the yield strength of the material and compared with distribution provided in fitness-for-purpose procedures. It is found that the current safety assessment procedure BS 7910 and R6 Level 1 significantly conservative for longitudinal stresses outside the weld and heat affected zone, and for transverse residual stress across the weldment for surface measurements. For a less conservative assessment, R6 Level 2 is recommended, however, even if this assessment is often conservative, in particular, for transverse residual stresses.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Illustration of the weldments: (a) unrestrained single bead on plate (Sample I); (b)–(d) are fully restrained: (b) single bead on plate (Sample II), (c) two beads on plate 50% overlapping (Sample III), (d) three beads on plate 50% overlapping (Sample IV), and (e) four beads on plate 50% overlapping (Sample V)

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Figure 2

Optical micrographs through Sample II showing fusion line (FL), PM, weld metal (WM), and HAZ

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Figure 3

The locations of the scans using ND on the single bead on plate (Sample II). All gauge volumes were centered 1.5mm below the surface of the plate.

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Figure 4

Comparison of the measured by ND longitudinal RS distributions normalized with respect to the yield strength of the weld metal (σYW), with the assessment procedures BS 7910 and R6, for unrestrained Sample I and restrained Sample II

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Figure 5

Comparison of the transverse RS distributions normalized with respect to the yield strength of the parent material (σYP) for unrestrained Sample I

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Figure 6

Comparison of the transverse RS distributions normalized with respect to the yield strength of the parent material (σYP) for restrained Sample II

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Figure 7

Comparison of the longitudinal RS distributions at the start and in the end of the weld for restrained Sample II

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Figure 8

Comparison of the transverse RS distributions at the start and in the end of the weld for restrained Sample II

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Figure 9

Comparison of the longitudinal RS distributions in the middle of the weld for Sample III

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Figure 10

Comparison of the transverse RS distributions in the middle of the weld for Sample III

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Figure 11

Comparison of the longitudinal RS distributions in the middle of the weld for Samples IV and V

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Figure 12

Comparison of the transverse RS distributions in the middle of the weld for Samples IV and V

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