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Research Papers: Design and Analysis

Low-Velocity Perforation of Mild Steel Rectangular Plates With Projectiles Having Different Shaped Impact Faces

[+] Author and Article Information
Norman Jones1

Impact Research Centre, Department of Engineering, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH, UKnorman.jones@liv.ac.uk

R. S. Birch, R. Duan

Impact Research Centre, Department of Engineering, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH, UK

The ordinates of Figs. 3(a)–3(c) in Ref. 2 should be divided by σyH3 to give Ωp.

Notwithstanding some relatively minor exceedence of the limit on σu for the circular plates.

These data are not reported in Tables  23 and were obtained for smaller impact loadings that did not cause cracking or perforation in the plate material.

See Eq. (8.6) in Ref. 9.

See, for example, the time-independent form of Eq. (8.6) in Ref. 9.

1

Corresponding author.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 130(3), 031206 (Jun 20, 2008) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2937767 History: Received October 30, 2006; Revised April 13, 2007; Published June 20, 2008

This article studies the perforation of mild steel square and rectangular plates struck normally by cylindrical projectiles having blunt, hemispherical, and conical impact faces. Experimental results are obtained in a drop hammer rig for the perforation of 4mm and 8mm thick plates struck by relatively heavy projectiles weighing between 11.9kg and 200kg and traveling at an initial velocity up to about 13ms. The plates were struck at the center and at several positions near the fully clamped supports. The effect of the aspect ratio on the perforation energies of rectangular plates is examined, and comparisons are made with the perforation behavior of fully clamped circular plates. The predictions of several empirical equations are compared with the corresponding experimental values of the perforation energies. Simple design equations are also presented for predicting the maximum permanent transverse displacements of square plates prior to any cracking or perforation.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Rectangular plate with typical impact locations A–D

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Figure 2

Variation of Ωp with 2L for 4mm thick rectangular plates having 2B=100mm and struck at the plate center with projectiles having d=10.16mm. ◻, ▽, and ○: blunt, conical, and hemispherical projectiles striking rectangular plates. ◼, ▼, and ●: blunt, conical, and hemispherical projectiles striking circular plates with 2R=101.6mm.

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Figure 3

Variation of Ωp with G for 8mm thick square plates (2L=2B=200mm) struck at the plate center with projectiles having d=20mm. +d=20.32mm. ◻, ▽, ○, ◼, ▼, and ●, are defined in Fig. 2, except that the circular plates have 2R=203.2mm.

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Figure 4

Variation of Ωp with ξ for rectangular plates having H=4mm and 2B=100mm and struck by projectiles with d=10.16mm. (a) 2L=100mm, (b) 2L=150mm, (c) 2L=200mm, (d) 2L=250mm. ◻, ▽, and ○ are defined in Fig. 2. ———: Eq. 2.

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Figure 5

Photographs of some typical failures of rectangular and square plates having d∕H=2.54. (a) H=4mm, ξ=0, blunt-nosed projectile, 100×100mm2 square plate. (b) H=8mm, ξ=0.6 (ξx=0.6, ξy=0), blunt-nosed projectile having G=96.5kg, 200×200mm2 square plate. (c) H=4mm, ξ=0, conical-nosed projectile, 100×200mm2 rectangular plate. (d) H=8mm, ξ=0.6(ξx=ξy=0.6), conical-nosed projectile, 200×200mm2 square plate. (e) H=4mm, ξ=0, hemispherical-nosed projectile, 100×100mm2 square plate. (f) H=4mm, ξ=0.92 (ξx=0.92, ξy=0), hemispherical-nosed projectile, 100×250mm2 rectangular plate.

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Figure 6

Variation of Ωp with the dimensionless span S∕d for square, rectangular, and circular plates struck at the center with blunt-faced projectiles having d∕H=2.54(2⩽H⩽8mm). ◻, ◇, and ○: experimental results for square, rectangular, and circular plates, respectively – – – –: BRL equation (see Eq. A2 in Ref. 1). ————: Jowett equation (see Eqs. (A5) and (A7) in Ref. 1). –⋅–⋅–⋅: Equation 1 (see Eq. (A8) in Ref. 1). a: average values of σy(269MPa) and σu∕σy (1.55), b: smallest values of σy(245MPa) and σu∕σy (1.37), c: largest values of σy(306MPa) and σu∕σy (1.81).

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Figure 7

Maximum permanent transverse deflection of square mild steel plates struck at the center by blunt-faced projectiles causing a wholly ductile behavior. Experimental data: ○: H=8mm, 2L=200mm, d∕H=2.5; ▽: H=8mm, 2L=200mm, d∕H=2.54; ×: H=4mm, 2L=100mm, d∕H=2.54. Theoretical predictions: ————: Eq. 3; – – – – – –: Eq. 3 with 0.618 σy; –⋅–⋅–⋅1: Eq. 3 with 0.618 nσy; –⋅–⋅–⋅2: Eq. 3 with nσy.

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