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Research Papers: Design and Analysis

On the Scaling of Low-Velocity Perforation of Mild Steel Plates

[+] Author and Article Information
Norman Jones1

Impact Research Centre, Department of Engineering, The University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GH, UKnorman.jones@liv.ac.uk

R. S. Birch

Impact Research Centre, Department of Engineering, The University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GH, UK

1

Corresponding author.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 130(3), 031207 (Jun 20, 2008) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2937769 History: Received October 30, 2006; Revised April 13, 2007; Published June 20, 2008

Experimental results are reported for the perforation of geometrically similar fully clamped circular and square mild steel plates struck transversely by cylindrical projectiles having blunt, conical, and hemispherical noses. The striking masses are much heavier than the corresponding plate mass and travel with initial impact velocities up to about 12ms. The blunt projectiles perforate the plating easiest, while the hemispherical-nosed ones require the greatest energy. The perforation energy of a conical-nosed projectile is somewhat less than that for a hemispherical-nosed one. The data are used to explore the validity of the geometrically similar scaling laws over a geometric scale range of 4. The experimental results are compared to the empirical equations for the impact perforation of plates and with theoretical rigid-plastic predictions for the large ductile deformation behavior of those test specimens, which did not suffer cracking or perforation. The experimental results satisfy the requirements of geometrically similar scaling and some simple equations are presented, which are useful for design purposes.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

Variation of dimensionless perforation energy (Ωp) with dimensionless radial location (ξ) for geometrically scaled, fully clamped circular plates struck by blunt projectiles with d∕H=2.54 and 2R∕d=10. (△) H=2mm, (×) H=4mm, (◇) H=6mm, (+) H=8mm; (▲) H=2mm, 2R∕d=40(7); (●) H=8mm(1) (——) Eq. 1; (– – –) Eq. 2.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 2

Variation of Ωp with ξ for geometrically scaled fully clamped circular plates struck by conical-nosed projectiles with d∕H=2.54 and 2R∕d=10. Notation is defined in Fig. 1.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 3

Variation of Ωp with ξ for geometrically scaled fully clamped circular plates struck by hemispherical-nosed projectiles with d∕H=2.54 and 2R∕d=10. Notation is defined in Fig. 1.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 4

Variation of Ωp with geometric scale factor β and thickness H for fully clamped mild steel circular plates struck at ξ=0 by blunt (◻), conical (▽), and hemispherical (○) projectiles having d∕H=2.54 and 2R∕d=10. (×) blunt projectile, d∕H=2.975, 2R∕d=8.54(3); (◼) blunt projectile, d∕H=2.975, 2R∕d=8.54(8); (——) Eq. 1; (-----) Eq. 2; (——), (– – –), (—— –) mean values of present data for hemispherical, conical, and blunt projectiles, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 5

Variation of Ωp with geometric scale factor β and H for fully clamped mild steel circular plates struck at ξ=0.6 by blunt (◻) and conical (▽) projectiles and at ξ=0.5 for hemispherical (○) projectiles. d∕H=2.54 and 2R∕d=10. (——), (– – –), (—— –) mean values of present data for hemispherical, conical, and blunt projectiles, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 6

Variation of Ωp with β and H for fully clamped mild steel circular plates struck at ξ=0.9 by blunt (◻) and conical (▽) projectiles and at ξ=0.8 for hemispherical (○) projectiles. d∕H=2.54 and 2R∕d=10. (——), (– – –), (—— –) mean values of present data for hemispherical, conical, and blunt projectiles, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 7

Variation of Ωp versus ξ for geometrically similar fully clamped square plates struck by blunt (◻, ◼), conical (▽, ▼), and hemispherical (○, ●) projectiles. (◻), (▽), (○) H=4mm, 2L=2B=100mm, d∕H=2.54, S∕d=9.8425(2); (◼) H=8mm, 2L=2B=200mm, d∕H=2.50, S∕d=10(2); (▼), (●) H=8mm, 2L=2B=200mm, d∕H=2.54, S∕d=9.8425(2); (——) Eq. 1 for d∕H=2.54 and S∕d=9.8425; (– – –) Eq. 2.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 8

Photographs of some typical failures of circular plates having d∕H=2.54. (a) H=2mm, hemispherical-nosed projectile at ξ=0; (b) H=2mm, conical-nosed projectile at ξ=0; (c) H=4mm, hemispherical-nosed projectile at ξ=0.5; (d) H=6mm, conical-nosed projectile at ξ=0.6; (e) H=6mm, hemispherical-nosed projectile at ξ=0.8; (f) H=8mm, flat-nosed projectile at ξ=0.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 9

Variation of maximum permanent transverse displacement (Wf∕H) versus dimensionless impact energy (Ω) for the ductile deformation behavior of fully clamped circular plates struck by conical-nosed projectiles at ξ=0. d∕H=2.54 and S∕d=10. △, ×, ◇, + are defined in Fig. 1. (——) Eq. 3; (– – – –) Eq. 4.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 10

Variation of Wf∕H versus Ω for ductile deformation behavior of fully clamped circular plates struck by hemispherical-nosed projectiles at ξ=0. d∕H=2.54 and S∕d=10. Notation is defined in Fig. 9.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 11

Variation of Wf∕H versus Ω for ductile deformation behavior of fully clamped square plates struck at ξ=0 by blunt (◻, ◼), conical (▽, ▼), and hemispherical (○, ●) projectiles with d∕H=2.54 and S∕d=9.8425. (——) Eq. 5; (– – – –) Eq. 6. (a) (◻) H=4mm, 2L=2B=100mm; (◼) H=8mm, 2L=2B=200mm; (◼+)H=8mm, 2L=2B=200mm, d∕H=2.5, S∕d=10. (b) (▽) H=4mm, 2L=2B=100mm; (▼) H=8mm, 2L=2B=200mm. (c) (○) H=4mm, 2L=2B=100mm; (●) H=8mm, 2L=2B=200mm.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 12

Variation of Wf∕H versus Ω for ductile deformation behavior of fully clamped square plates struck at ξc and ξs by blunt (◻, ◼), conical (▽, ▼), and hemispherical (○, ●) projectiles with d∕H=2.54 and S∕d=9.8425. (a) (◻+)H=4mm, 2L=2B=100mm, ξs at ξx=0 and ξy=0.6; (◼) H=8mm, 2L=2B=200mm, ξc at ξx=ξy=0.6; (◼+)H=8mm, 2L=2B=200mm, ξs at ξx=0 and ξy=0.6 (b) (▽) H=4mm, 2L=2B=100mm, ξc at ξx=ξy=0.6; (▼) H=8mm, 2L=2B=200mm, ξc at ξx=ξy=0.6; (▼+)H=8mm, 2L=2B=200mm, ξs at ξx=0 and ξy=0.6. (c) (○) H=4mm, 2L=2B=100mm, ξc at ξx=ξy=0.6; (○+)H=4mm, 2L=2B=100mm, ξs at ξx=0 and ξy=0.6; (●) H=8mm, 2L=2B=200mm, ξc at ξx=ξy=0.6; (●+)H=8mm, 2L=2B=200mm, ξs at ξx=0 and ξy=0.6.

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