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Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

The Effects of Filler Metal Transformation Temperature on Residual Stresses in a High Strength Steel Weld

[+] Author and Article Information
J. A. Francis, P. J. Withers

School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS, UK

H. J. Stone, S. Kundu, H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia

Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, UK

R. B. Rogge

Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Canada Chalk River Laboratories, National Research Council, Chalk River, ON, KOJ 1PO, Canada

L. Karlsson

ESAB AB, Central Research Laboratories, Lindholmsallén 9, P.O. Box 8004, SE-402 77 Gothenburg, Sweden

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 131(4), 041401 (May 15, 2009) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3122036 History: Received October 29, 2007; Revised August 06, 2008; Published May 15, 2009

Residual stress in the vicinity of a weld can have a large influence on structural integrity. Here the extent to which the martensite-start temperature of the weld filler metal can be adjusted to engineer the residual stress distribution in a bainitic-martensitic steel weld was investigated. Three single-pass groove welds were deposited by manual-metal-arc welding on 12 mm thick steel plates using filler metals designed to have different martensite-start temperatures. Their longitudinal, transverse, and normal residual stress distributions were then characterized across the weld cross section by neutron diffraction. It was found that tensile stresses along the welding direction can be reduced or even replaced with compressive stresses if the transformation temperature is lowered sufficiently. The results are interpreted in the context of designing better welding consumables.

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Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic representation of welded plate showing location of reference combs, slice extracted for macrograph, and location of measurement plane

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Figure 2

Macrographs through the 12 mm thick welded plates. The extents of the fusion zone and HAZ are similar in each case. The locations at which optical micrographs were captured (see Figs.  33333) are shown on the LTTE macrograph.

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Figure 3

Optical macrographs taken from the LTTE weld at the locations shown in Fig. 2. The images show (a) the fusion boundary, (b) coarse-grained HAZ, (c) fine-grained HAZ, (d) intercritical HAZ, and (e) unaffected parent metal. In (b) “GB” denotes prior-austenite grain boundaries.

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Figure 4

Results of Satoh tests on each of the undiluted weld filler alloys, cooling from 850°C at 10°C s−1

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Figure 5

Longitudinal residual stresses (in MPa) across the central 80 mm of each plate estimated using neutron diffraction measurements located at the crosses. For each weld, the stresses are superimposed on the corresponding macrograph.

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Figure 6

Variation in longitudinal stress with distance from weld centerline at different depths within each welded plate. Note that error bars were included in this figure, which are typically smaller than the symbols used, being of the order of 20–30 MPa. The position of the HAZ boundary, as assessed by optical microscopy, was highlighted at each depth.

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Figure 7

Transverse and normal residual stresses estimated using neutron diffraction measurements at locations marked by crosses for the high transformation temperature OK75.78 filler and the low temperature LTTE filler. The stresses were superimposed on the corresponding macrographs.

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