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Research Papers: Design and Analysis

A Comparison Between Measured and Modeled Residual Stresses in a Circumferentially Butt-Welded P91 Steel Pipe

[+] Author and Article Information
A. H. Yaghi, T. H. Hyde, A. A. Becker, W. Sun

Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK

G. Hilson

Interface Analysis Centre, University of Bristol, Bristol BS2 8BS, UK

S. Simandjuntak

 European Technology Development, 6 Axis Centre, Cleeve Road, Leatherhead, Surrey KT22 7RD, UK

P. E. J. Flewitt

Interface Analysis Centre, University of Bristol, Bristol BS2 8BS, UK; Department of Physics, H. H. Wills Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS2 1TN, UK

M. J. Pavier, D. J. Smith

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TH, UK

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 132(1), 011206 (Jan 05, 2010) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000347 History: Received October 21, 2008; Revised August 11, 2009; Published January 05, 2010; Online January 05, 2010

Residual macrostresses in a multipass circumferentially butt-welded P91 ferritic steel pipe have been determined numerically and experimentally. The welded joint in a pipe with an outer diameter of 290 mm and a wall thickness of 55 mm is typical of power generation plant components. An axisymmetric thermomechanical finite element model has been used to predict the resulting residual hoop and axial stresses in the welded pipe. The effects of the austenite to martensite phase transformation have been incorporated into the simulation. Residual stresses have been measured using the X-ray diffraction technique along the outer surface of the pipe and using the deep-hole drilling technique through the wall thickness at the center of the weld. Good correlation has been demonstrated between the residual hoop and the axial stresses obtained numerically and experimentally. The paper demonstrates the importance of using a mixed experimental and numerical approach to determine accurately the residual macrostress distribution in welded components.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Details of the circumferential weld in the P91 steel pipe: (a) pipe dimensions and (b) weld geometry

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Figure 2

Cross section of the weld: (a) weld pass sequence and (b) image of macrosection

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Figure 3

Axisymmetric finite element mesh: (a) complete mesh, axial constraints and pipe symmetry axis; (b) weld pass sequence; and (c) definition of lines and regions for presentation of finite element results

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Figure 4

Mechanical and thermal material properties for the PM and WM versus temperature

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Figure 5

Hardening moduli for the parent and weld materials versus temperature

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Figure 6

Distributed heat flux for five weld pass depositions versus time, where time starts from the beginning of each weld pass application

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Figure 7

Schematic of volume change due to austenite and martensite phase transformations

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Figure 8

Contour plots showing finite element predictions of residual stress: (a) hoop stress and (b) axial stress

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Figure 9

X-ray diffraction measurements (error on average=±10 MPa) and finite element predictions of residual stress along the outside surface of the pipe versus distance measured from the weld centerline, starting from the PM on the same side as the last bead (see Fig. 2): (a) hoop stress and (b) axial stress

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Figure 10

Deep-hole drilling measurements (error on average=±25 MPa) and finite element predictions of residual stress through the wall thickness of the pipe: (a) hoop stress and (b) axial stress. WCL: weld centerline and L6 defined in Fig. 3.

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