Eringen, A. C., Naghdi, A. K., Mahmood, S. S., Thiel, C. C., and Ariman, T., 1969, “Stress Concentrations in Two Normally Intersecting Cylindrical Shells Subject to Internal Pressure,” Welding Research Council Bulletin No. 139.

Lekkerkerker, J. G., 1972, “The Determination of Elastic Stresses Near Cylinder-to-Cylinder Intersection,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 20 , pp. 57–84.

[CrossRef]Qian, L. X., Tang, X. J., Zhong, W. X., and Chen, H. R., 1965, “General Solution of Cylindrical Shells With Cut-Out,” J. Dalian Institute of Technology, 3 (3–4), pp. 1–23 (in Chinese).

Flügge, W., and Conrad, D. A., 1958, “Thermal Singularities for Cylindrical Shells,” Proceedings of the Third U.S. National Congress of Applied Mechanics , pp. 321–328.

Timoshenko, S., 1940, "*Theory of Plates and Shells*", McGraw-Hill, New York, p. 440.

Bijlaard, P. P., 1955, “Stresses From Local Loading in Cylindrical Pressure Vessels,” Trans. ASME, 77 , pp. 805–812.

Bijlaard, P. P., 1955, “Stresses From Radial Loads and External Moments in Cylindrical Pressure Vessels,” Weld. J. (Miami, FL, U.S.), 34 (11), pp. 608-s–617-s.

Steele, C. R., and Steele, M. L., 1983, “Stress Analysis of Nozzle in Cylindrical Vessels With External Load,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 105 , pp. 191–200.

[CrossRef]Wichman, K. R., Hopper, A. G., and Mershon, J. L., 1965, “Local Stresses in Spherical and Cylindrical Shells Due to External Loadings,” WRC Bulletin No. 107.

Mershon, J. L., Mokhtarian, K., Ranjan, G. V., and Rodabaugh, E. C., 1984, “Local Stresses in Cylindrical Shells Due to External Loadings on Nozzle Supplement to WRC Bulletin No. 107,” WRC Bulletin No. 297.

Gol’denveizer, A. L., 1961, "*Theory of Elastic Thin Shells*", Pergamon, Oxford, English translation.

Koiter, W. T., 1959, “A Consistent First Approximation in the General Theory of Elastic Shells,” "*Proceedings of the Symposium on the Theory of Thin Elastic Shells*", Delft, The Netherlands, W.T.Koiter, ed., North-Holland, Amsterdam.

Donnell, L. H., 1933, “Stability of Thin Walled Tubes Under Torsion,” NACA, Report No. 479.

Flügge, W., 1934, "*Statik und Dynamik der Schalen*", Julius Springer, Berlin, Germany, p. 118.

Morley, L. S. D., 1959, “An Improvement on Donnell’s Approximation for Thin Walled Circular Cylinders,” Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math., 12 , pp. 89–99.

[CrossRef]Hoff, N. J., 1955, “The Accuracy of Donnell’s Equations,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 22 , pp. 329–334.

Donnell, L. H., 1976, "*Beams, Plates and Shells*", McGraw-Hill, New York, Chap. 6.

Simmonds, J. G., 1966, “A Set of Simple, Accurate Equations for Circular Cylindrical Elastic Shells,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 2 , pp. 525–541.

[CrossRef]Budiansky, B., and Sanders, J. L., 1963, “On the ‘Best’ First-Order Linear Shell Theory,” "*Progress in Applied Mechanics*" (The Prager Anniversary Volume ), Macmillan, London, pp. 129–140.

Hwang, K. C., Lu, M. W., and Xue, M. D., 1988, "*Theory of Elastic Thin Shells*", 1st ed., High Educational, Beijing, China, in Chinese.

Niordson, F. I., 1985, "*Shell Theory*", North-Holland, Amsterdam.

Xue, M. D., Deng, Y., and Hwang, K. C., 1991, “Some Results on Analytical Solution of Cylindrical Shells With Large Opening,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 113 , pp. 297–307.

[CrossRef]Deng, Y., Hwang, K. C., and Xue, M. D., 1991, “The Stress Analysis of Cylindrical Shells With Rigid Inclusions Having a Large Ratio of Radii,” SMiRT 11 Transactions F, F05/2 , 85–90.

Xue, M. D., Chen, W., Deng, Y., and Hwang, K. C., 1995, “The Thin Theoretical Solution for Cylindrical Shells With Large Openings,” Acta Mech. Sin., 27 (4), pp. 482–488.

Xue, M. D., Chen, W., and Hwang, K. C., 1995, “Stresses at the Intersection of Two Cylindrical Shells,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 154 , pp. 231–238.

[CrossRef]Xue, M. D., Hwang, K. C., Lü, W., and Chen, W., 1996, “A Reinforcement Design Method Based on Analysis of Large Openings in Cylindrical Pressure Vessels,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 118 , pp. 502–506.

[CrossRef]China National Standards Committee on Pressure Vessels, 1995, Steel Pressure Vessels—Design by Analysis—Professional Standards of China JB-4732-95, Appendix J, Version 2 in 2005, Beijing, China, in Chinese.

Xue, M. D., Wang, H. H., Chen, W., and Hwang, K. C., 1999, “Analytical Solution for Cylindrical Thin Shells With Normally Intersecting Nozzles Due to External Moments on the Ends of Shells,” Sci. China, Ser. A: Math., Phys., Astron., 42 (3), pp. 293–304.

[CrossRef]Xue, M. D., Wang, H. H., and Hwang, K. C., 2000, “Stress Analysis of Cylindrical Shells With Nozzles Due to External Run Pipe Moments,” J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des., 35 , pp. 159–170.

[CrossRef]Xue, M. D., Li, D. F., and Hwang, K. C., 2004, “Analytical Solution of Two Intersecting Cylindrical Shells Subjected to Transverse Moment on Nozzle,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 41 (24–25), pp. 6949–6962.

[CrossRef]Xue, M. D., Li, D. F., and Hwang, K. C., 2005, “A Thin Shell Theoretical Solution for Two Intersecting Cylindrical Shells Due to External Branch Pipe Moments,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 127 (4), pp. 357–368.

[CrossRef]Xue, M. D., Li, D. F., and Hwang, K. C., 2005, “Theoretical Stress Analysis of Two Intersecting Cylindrical Shells Subjected to External Loads Transmitted Through Branch Pipes,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 42 , pp. 3299–3319.

[CrossRef]Xue, M. D., Du, Q. H., Li, D. F., and Hwang, K. C., 2006, “Theoretical Stress Analysis of Intersecting Cylindrical Shells Subjected to External Forces on Nozzle,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 128 (1), pp. 71–83.

[CrossRef]Zhang, P. X., Hwang, K. C., and Lu, M. W., 1991, “Stress Analysis of the Cylindrical Shell With a Large Opening,” Acta Mech. Sin., 23 (6), pp. 700–705.

Du, Q. H., 2007, “A Thin Shell Theoretical Solution for Two Normally Intersecting Cylindrical Shells,” Ph.D. thesis, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, in Chinese.

Corum, J. M., Bolt, S. E., Greenstreet, W. L., and Gawltney, R. C., 1974, “Theoretical and Experimental Stress Analysis of ORNL Thin-Shell Cylinder to Cylinder Model-1,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ORNL Report No. 4553.

Riley, W. F., 1965, “Experimental Determination Stress Distributions in Thin-Walled Cylindrical and Spherical Pressure Vessels With Circular Nozzles,” WRC Bulletin No. 108.

Li, D. F., 2004, “Thin Shell Theoretical Solution of a Cylindrical Shell With Radial Nozzle Subjected to External Loads,” Ph.D. thesis, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, in Chinese.

Decock, J., 1973, “Determination of Stress Concentration Factors and Fatigue Assessment of Flush and Extruded Nozzles in Welded Pressure Vessels,” Second International Conference on Pressure Vessel Technology , San Antonio, TX, Paper No. II-59.

Decock, J., 1975, “Reinforcement Method of Openings in Cylindrical Pressure Vessels Subjected to Internal Pressure,” Weld. Res. Abroad, MT104 (Feb. 1975), pp. 9–36.

Mokhtarian, K., and Endicott, J. S., 1991, “Stresses in Intersecting Cylinders Subjected to Pressure,” WRC Bulletin No. 368.

Mershon, J. L.1966, “Preliminary Evaluation of PVRC Photoelastic Test Data on Reinforced Openings in Pressure Vessels,” WRC Bulletin No. 113.

Taylor, C. E., and Lind, N. C., 1966, “Photoelastic Study of the Stresses Near Openings in Pressure Vessels,” WRC Bulletin No. 113.