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Technology Reviews

Overview of Mechanics of Pipes Conveying Fluids—Part I: Fundamental Studies

[+] Author and Article Information
R. A. Ibrahim

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 132(3), 034001 (May 18, 2010) (32 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001271 History: Received November 20, 2009; Revised January 12, 2010; Published May 18, 2010; Online May 18, 2010

This two-part review article presents an overview of mechanics of pipes conveying fluid and related problems such as the fluid-elastic instability under conditions of turbulence in nuclear power plants. In the first part, different types of modeling, dynamic analysis, and stability regimes of pipes conveying fluid restrained by elastic or inelastic barriers are described. The dynamic and stability behaviors of pinned-pinned, clamped-clamped, and cantilevered pipes conveying fluid together with curved and articulated pipes will be discussed. Other problems such as pipes made of viscoelastic materials and active control of severe pipe vibrations are considered. This part will be closed by conclusions highlighting resolved and nonresolved controversies reported in literature. The second part will address the problem of fluid-elastic instability in single- and two-phase flows and fretting wear in process equipment such as heat exchangers and steam generators. Connors critical velocity will be discussed as a measure of initiating fluid-elastic instability. Vibro-impact of heat exchanger tubes and the random excitation by the cross-flow can produce a progressive damage at the supports through fretting wear or fatigue. Antivibration bar supports used to limit pipe vibrations are described. An assessment of analytical, numerical, and experimental techniques of fretting wear problem of pipes in heat exchangers will be given. Other topics related to this part include remote impact analysis and parameter identification, pipe damage-induced by pressure elastic waves, the dynamic response and stability of long pipes, marine risers together with pipes aspirating fluid, and carbon nanotubes conveying fluid.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of a cantilever pipe conveying fluid and the free-body diagram of the pipe section (99)

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Figure 2

Schematic of cantilever pipes conveying fluid oscillating in three-dimensional motion

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Figure 3

Schematic of a cantilevered pipe: (a) elevation view, and (b) projection showing the restrained set of four springs (215)

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Figure 4

Bifurcation diagram showing the dependence of pipe displacement on flow velocity, (⊙,η) and (+,ζ)(215)

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Figure 5

Time history record at flow velocity u=12.5 showing sample of chaotic motion (– – –, η) and (____, ζ) (215)

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Figure 6

Experimental bifurcation diagram showing average displacement (×) and average amplitude (○); ◼, static measurements (215)

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Figure 7

Dependence of the critical flow velocity, at which the first bifurcation occurs, on the linear spring stiffness. (×) Hopf bifurcation and (○) pitchfork bifurcation (215)

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Figure 8

Time history records of the tip displacement of coupled fluid-viscoelastic cantilevered pipe conveying fluid over two segments of time (a) over 0–17 s and (b) over 10–27 s (289)

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Figure 9

(a) Schematic of a constrained cantilevered pipe, and (b) dependence of restrained force on the displacement; ○, measured points (372-373)

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Figure 10

Bifurcation diagrams for a two-mode model showing the dependence of the free-end displacement on the flow speed parameter for three velocity ranges: (a) velocity range 6–8.5 and (b) velocity range 10–11 (372-373)

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Figure 11

Schematic of a semicircular cantilevered pipe with constraint

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Figure 12

Bifurcation diagrams for the dependence of the pipe free-end displacement on the fluid-flow velocity under forced excitation, for mass ratio parameter μ=0.5, constraint stiffness parameter κ=1000, and constraint location ϑc=0.854(402,409). (a) No external excitation; (b) external excitation, excitation amplitude f=0.005, and frequency ν=1.0.

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