0
Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Deterministic Formulation of the Effect of Stress Intensity Factor on PWSCC of Ni-Base Alloys and Weld Metals

[+] Author and Article Information
Tetsuo Shoji

e-mail: tshoji@rift.mech.tohoku.ac.jp

Chaoyang Fu

Fracture and Reliability Research Institute,
Faculty of Engineering,
Tohoku University,
Aramaki Aoba 6-6-10, Aoba-ku,
Sendai 980-8579, Japan

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology. Manuscript received July 4, 2011; final manuscript received June 9, 2012; published online March 18, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Xian-Kui Zhu.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 135(2), 021402 (Mar 18, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: PVT-11-1149; doi: 10.1115/1.4007471 History: Received July 04, 2011; Revised June 09, 2012

The fundamental correlations such as crack growth rate (CGR) versus K for primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of nickel-base alloys in simulated pressurized water reactor environments are quantified with the theoretical model based on the combination of crack tip mechanics and oxidation kinetics. Materials reliability program (MRP) proposed a CGR disposition curve in a report MRP 55 for PWSCC of thick-section Alloy 600 materials. This deterministic CGR equation has been adopted by Section XI Nonmandatory Appendix O of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Code for flaw evaluation. MRP also proposed a CGR disposition curve in a report MRP 115 for PWSCC of Alloy 82/182/132 weld metals. Stress intensity factor (K), temperature and thermal activation energy are included in both MRP 55 and MRP 115 reports. Both MRP 55 and MRP 115 are engineering-based. The results of mechanism-based modeling are compared with the screened experimental data for typical PWSCC systems of nickel-base alloys and the consistence is observed.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Scott, P. M., and Benhamou, C., 2001, “An Overview of Recent Observation and Interpretation of IGSCC in Nickel base Alloys in PWR Primary Water,” Proceedings of the 10th International Conference Environmental Degradation Materials Nuclear Power Systems-Water Reactors, NACE, CDROM.
Scott, P. M., and Combrade, P., 2003, “On the Mechanism of Stress Corrosion Crack Initiation and Growth in Alloy 600 Exposed to PWR Primary Water,” Proceedings of the 11th International Conference Environmental Degradation of Materials Nuclear Power Systems-Water Reactors, ANS, pp. 29–35.
Scott, P. M., Meunier, M. C., Calonne, O., Foucault, M. P., Combrade, P., and Amzallag, C., 2007, “Comparison of Laboratory and Field Experience of PWSCC in Alloy 182 Weld Metal,” Proceedings of the 13th International Conference Environment Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems-Water Reactors, CDROM.
MRP-55NP, 2002, Materials Reliability Program (MRP) Crack Growth Rates for Evaluating Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) of Thick-Wall Alloy 600 Materials (MRP-55NP), Revision 1, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA, 1006695-NP, NRC.
White, G. A., Hickling, J., and Mathews, L. K., 2003, “Crack Growth Rates for Evaluating PWSCC of Thick-Wall Alloy 600 Material,” Proceedings of the 11th International Conference Environmental Degradation Materials Nuclear Power Systems-Water Reactors, ANS, pp. 166–179.
MRP-115, 2002, Materials Reliability Program Crack Growth Rates for Evaluating Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 82, 182, and 132 Welds (MRP-115), EPRI, Palo Alto, CA, 1006696.
White, G. A., Nordmann, N. S., Hickling, J., and Harrington, C. D., 2005, “Development of Crack Growth Rate Disposition Curves for Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 82, 182, and 132 Weldments,” Proceedings of 12th International Conference Environmental Degradation Materials Nuclear Power Systems-Water Reactors, TMS, pp. 511–530.
ASME, 2004, “Nonmandatory Appendix O Evaluation of Flaws in PWR Reactor Vessel Upper Head Penetration Nozzles,” ASME 2004 Section XI, Division 1.
Shoji, T., Suzuki, S., and Ballinger, R. G., 1995, “Theoretical Prediction of SCC Growth Behavior-Threshold and Plateau Growth Rate,” Proceedings of the 7th International Conference Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems-Water Reactors, NACE, pp. 881–891.
Shoji, T., Lu, Z. P., and Murakami, H., 2010, “Formulating Stress Corrosion Cracking Growth Rates by Combination of Crack Tip Mechanics and Crack Tip Oxidation Kinetics,” Corros. Sci., 52, pp. 769–779. [CrossRef]
Bruemmer, S. M., and Thomas, L. E., 2001, “High-Resolution Analytical Electron Microscopy Characterization of Corrosion and Cracking at Buried Interfaces,” Surf. Interface Anal., 31(7), pp. 571–581. [CrossRef]
Staehle, R. W., 2010, “Critical Analysis of Tight Cracks,” Corros. Rev., 28(1–2), pp. 1–103. [CrossRef]
JNES, 2005, “Proposed Curves for SCC Growth Rates of Ni-Base Alloys,” JNES, JNES SS Report-0517.
Foster, J. P., Bamford, W. H., and Pathania, R. S., 2003, “Alloy 600 Crack Growth Rate Stress Intensity Dependence,” Proceedings of the 11th International Conference Environment Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems-Water Reactors, ANS, pp. 156–165.
Moshier, W. C., and Brown, C. M., 2000, “Effect of Cold Work and Processing Orientation on Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of Alloy 600,” Corrosion, 68(3), pp. 307–320. [CrossRef]
Cassagne, T., Caron, D., Daret, J., and Lefevre, Y., 1999, “Stress Corrosion Crack Growth Rate Measurements in Alloys 600 and 182,” Proceeding of 9th International Symposium Environment Degradation of Materials Nuclear Power Systems-Water Reactors, TMS, pp. 217–224.
Norring, K., Konig, M., and Lagerstrom, J., 2005, “Stress Intensity and Temperature Dependence for Crack Growth Rate in Weld Metal Alloy 182 in Primary PWR Environment,” Proceedings of the 12th International Conference Environment Degradation of Materials Nuclear Power Systems-Water Reactors, TMS, pp. 533–539.
Paraventi, D. J., and Moshier, W. C., 2005, “The Effect of Cold Work and Dissolved Hydrogen in the Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 82 and Alloy 182 Weld Metals,” Proceedings of the12th International Conference Environment Degradation of Materials Nuclear Power Systems-Water Reactors, TMS, pp. 543–553.
Amzallag, C., and Vaillant, F., 1999, “Stress Corrosion Cracking Propagation Rates in Reactor Vessel Head Penetrations in Alloy 600,” Proceedings of the 9th International Conference Environment Degradation of Materials Nuclear Power Systems-Water Reactors, TMS, pp. 235–241.
Jacko, R. J., GoldR. E., Rao, G. V., Koyama, K., and Kroes, A., 2003, “Results of Accelerated SCC Testing of Alloy 82, Alloy 182, and Alloy 52M Weld Metals,” Proceedings of the U.S.NRC-ANL Conference on Vessel Penetration Inspection, Cracking and Repairs, USNRC.
Andresen, P. L., 1999, “SCC Testing and Data Quality Considerations,” Proceedings of the 9th Intenational Conference Environment Degradation of Materials Nuclear Power Systems-Water Reactors,” TMS, pp. 411–422.
Shoji, T., 2005, “SCC Data re-Evaluation,” Tohoku University, Report for JNES.
Andresen, P. L., and Ford, F. P., 1988, “Life Prediction by Mechanistic Modeling and System Monitoring of Environmental Cracking of Iron and Nickel-Alloys in Aqueous Systems,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 103(1), pp. 167–184. [CrossRef]
Ford, F. P., 1996, “Quantitative Prediction of Environmentally Assisted Cracking,” Corrosion, 52(5), pp. 375–395. [CrossRef]
Vermilyea, D. A., 1977, “A Film Rupture Model for Stress Corrosion Cracking,” Proceedings of Stress Corrosion Cracking and Hydrogen Embrittlement of Iron Base Alloys, NACE, pp. 208–217.
Parkins, R. N., 1987, “Factors Influencing Stress-Corrosion Crack-Growth Kinetics,” Corrosion, 43(3), pp. 130–139. [CrossRef]
Newman, R. C., 1994, “Developments in the Slip-Dissolution Model of Stress-Corrosion Cracking,” Corrosion, 50(9), pp. 682–686. [CrossRef]
Birks, N., and Meier, G. H., 1983, Introduction to High Temperature Oxidation of Metals, Edward Arnold, London, Chap. IV.
Gao, Y. C., and Hwang, K. C., 1981, “Elastic-Plastic Fields in Steady Crack Growth in a Strain-Hardening Material,” Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Fracture, France, Vol. 2, pp. 669–682.
Hutchinson, J. W., 1968, “Plastic Stress and Strain Fields at a Crack Tip,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 16(5), pp. 337–342. [CrossRef]
Rice, J. R., and Rosengren, G. F., 1968, “Plane Strain Deformation Near a Crack Tip in a Power-Law Hardening Material,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 16(1), pp. 1–12. [CrossRef]
Gao, Y. C., Zhang, X. T., and Hwang, K. C., 1983, “The Asymptotic near-Tip Solution for Mode-Iii Crack in Steady Growth in Power Hardening Media,” Int. J. Fract., 21(4), pp. 301–317. [CrossRef]
Fan, T. Y., Sutton, M. A., and Zhang, L. X., 1997, “Plane Stress Steady Crack Growth in a Power-Law Hardening Material,” Int. J. Fract., 86(4), pp. 327–341. [CrossRef]
Anderson, T. L., 1991, Fracture Mechanics-Fundamentals and Applications, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, Chaps. III and IV.
Shoji, T., Lu, Z. P., Das, N. K., Murakami, H., Takeda, Y., and Ismail, T., 2009, “Modeling Stress Corrosion Crack Growth Rates Based Upon the Effect of Stress/Strain on Crack Tip Interface Degradation and Oxidation Reaction Kinetics,” ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference, ASME, Paper No. PVP2009-77615.
Hall, M. M., 2008, “An Alternative to the Shoji Crack Tip Strain Rate Equation,” Corros. Sci., 50(10), pp. 2902–2905. [CrossRef]
Lu, B. T., Song, F., Gao, M., and Elboujdaini, M., 2010, “Crack Growth Model for Pipelines Exposed to Concentrated Carbonate-Bicarbonate Solution With High pH,” Corros. Sci., 52(12), pp. 4064–4072. [CrossRef]
Machet, A., Galtayries, A., Marcus, P., Combrade, P., Jolivet, P., and Scott, P. M., 2002, “XPS Study of Oxides Formed on Nickel-Base Alloys in High-Temperature and High-Pressure Water,” Surf. Interface Anal., 34, pp. 197–200. [CrossRef]
Seyeux, A., Machet, A., Galtayries, A., Maurice, V., and Noel, D., 2008, “Early Stages of Oxidation of Stainless Alloys in High Temperature Water: From Experiments to Modeling,” Workshop on Detection, Avoidance, Mechanisms, Modeling, and Prediction of SCC Initiation in Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Plants, CDROM.
Rosecrans, P. M., and Duquette, D. J., 2001, “Formation Kinetics and Rupture Strain of Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy Corrosion Films Formed in High-Temperature Water,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 32(12), pp. 3015–3021. [CrossRef]
Ziemniak, S. E., and Hanson, M., 2002, “Corrosion Behavior of 304 Stainless Steel in High Temperature, Hydrogenated Water,” Corros. Sci., 44(10), pp. 2209–2230. [CrossRef]
Ziemniak, S. E., and Hanson, M., 2003, “Corrosion Behavior of NiCrMo Alloy 625 in High Temperature, Hydrogenated Water,” Corros. Sci., 45(7), pp. 1595–1618. [CrossRef]
Ziemniak, S. E., and Hanson, M., 2006, “Corrosion Behavior of NiCrFe Alloy 600 in High Temperature, Hydrogenated Water,” Corros. Sci., 48(2), pp. 498–521. [CrossRef]
Castelli, R. A., Persans, P. D., Strohmayer, W., and Parkinson, V., 2007, “Optical Reflection Spectroscopy of Thick Corrosion Layers on 304 Stainless Steel,” Corros. Sci., 49(12), pp. 4396–4414. [CrossRef]
Attanasio, S. A., and Morton, D. S., 2003, “Measurement of the Nickel/Nickel Oxide Transition in Ni-Cr-Fe Alloys and Updated Data and Correlations to Quantify the Effect of Aqueous Hydrogen on Primary Water SCC,” Proceedings of the 11th International Conference Environmental Degradation Materials Nuclear Power Systems-Water Reactors, ANS, pp. 143–154.
Proust, A., Guilodo, M., Barale, M., Perrin, S., Pijolat, M., Wolski, K., and Combrade, P., 2008, “Determination of the Kinetics of Oxidation and Cation Release of Ni Base Alloys in PWR Primary Coolant,” Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on the Properties of Water and Steam, Paper No. L03-2.
Shoji, T., Lu, Z. P., Xue, H., Qiu, Y. B., and Sakaguchi, K., 2010, “Quantifying Crack Tip Oxidation Kinetics Parameters and Their Contribution to Stress Corrosion Cracking in High Temperature Water,” ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference, Paper No. PVP2010-25238.
Xue, H., and Shoji, T., 2007, “Quantitative Prediction of EAC Crack Growth Rate of Sensitized Type 304 Stainless Steel in Boiling Water Reactor Environments Based on EPFEM,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 129, pp. 460–467. [CrossRef]
Shoji, T., Lu, Z. P., and Yamazaki, S., 2009, “The Effect of Strain-Hardening on PWSCC of Nickel-Base Alloys 600 and 690,” Proceedings of the 14th International Conference Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems-Water Reactors,” ANS, pp. 220–238.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

SCC growth rate data by Cassagne et al. [16] for Alloy 600 in simulated PWR primary water at 310 and 330 °C and fitting parameters

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

SCC growth rate data by Moshier and Brown [15] for cold worked Alloy 600 in simulated PWR primary water and fitting parameters

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

SCC growth rate data by reported by Foster et al. [14] for Alloy 600 in simulated PWR primary water 320 °C and fitting parameters

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

(a) Field and experiment data [7,20,20] and calculated PWSCC growth rates of Alloy 182 with the theoretical model based on quasi-solid state oxidation kinetics, and (b) optimized values of k1 and r0

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

SCC growth rate data reported by Paraventi and Moshier [18] for cold worked Alloy 82 in simulated PWR primary water and fitting parameters

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

EDF PWSCC of Alloy 600 VHP field data by Amzallag and Vaillant [19] and fitting parameters. The temperature of cold dome is about 287 ± 4 °C, and the mean temperature of the hot dome is about 313.5 °C.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

PWSCC plant data of Alloy 182 in Ringhal 3 hot leg safe end nozzle weld [7] and some experimental data [20]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Values of nkt calculated with Eq. (22) for various combinations of m and nRO

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

(a) Experimental data [14], and calculated PWSCC growth rates of Alloy 600 with the theoretical model based on quasi-solid state oxidation kinetics, and (b) k1 and r0 optimized at different film degradation strain levels

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Plots of various CGR-K curves defined by various equations for PWSCC of Ni-base alloys and weld metals at 325 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

(a) Experimental data [17], and calculated PWSCC growth rates of Alloy 182 with the theoretical model based on quasi-solid state oxidation kinetics, and (b) k1 and r0 optimized at different film degradation strain levels

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

SCC growth rate data by Norring et al. [17] for Alloy 182 in simulated PWR primary water 320 °C and fitting parameters

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

SCC growth rate data reported by Paraventi and Moshier [18] for Alloy 182 in simulated PWR primary water and related fitting parameters

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In