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Design and Analysis

Pipe Elbows Under Strong Cyclic Loading

[+] Author and Article Information
George E. Varelis

e-mail: gevareli@mie.uth.gr

Spyros A. Karamanos

e-mail: skara@mie.uth.gr
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Thessaly,
Volos, 38334, Greece

Arnold M. Gresnigt

Department of Civil Engineering and Geosciences,
Delft University of Technology,
2628 CN Delft,
The Netherlands
e-mail: a.m.gresnigt@tudelft.nl

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 11, 2012; final manuscript received May 17, 2012; published online December 17, 2012. Assoc. Editor: Haofeng Chen.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 135(1), 011207 (Dec 17, 2012) (9 pages) Paper No: PVT-12-1005; doi: 10.1115/1.4007293 History: Received January 11, 2012; Revised May 17, 2012

Motivated by the response of industrial piping under seismic loading conditions, the present study examines the behavior of steel process piping elbows, subjected to strong cyclic loading conditions. A set of experiments is conducted on elbow specimens subjected to constant amplitude in-plane cyclic bending, resulting into failure in the low-cycle-fatigue range. The experimental results are used to develop a low-cycle-fatigue curve within the strain-based fatigue design framework. The experimental work is supported by finite element analyses, which account for geometrical and material nonlinearities. Using advanced plasticity models to describe the behavior of elbow material, the analysis focuses on localized deformations at the critical positions where cracking occurs. Finally, the relevant provisions of design codes (ASME B31.3 and EN 13480) for elbow design are discussed and assessed, with respect to the experimental and numerical findings.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Experimental set-up: (a) front view and (b) instrumentation

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Fig. 2

Material curve and model predictions

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Fig. 3

Increasing amplitude-loading pattern according to ECCS recommendations [28]

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Fig. 4

Cracked elbow specimen No. 4 with displacement range ±150 mm: (a) failure stage with through-thickness crack development and (b) crack configuration

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Fig. 5

Test 1: Δl = ±25 mm load-displacement cycles

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Fig. 6

Test 2: Δl = ±70 mm load-displacement cycles

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Fig. 7

Test 3: Δl = ±100 mm load-displacement cycles

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Fig. 8

Test 4: Δl = ±150 mm (a) load-displacement cycles and (b) flattening-displacement cycles

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Fig. 9

Test 5: Δl = ±200 mm load-displacement cycles

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Fig. 10

Test 6: Δl = ±250 mm load-displacement cycles

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Fig. 11

Test 7: Δl = ±300 mm (a) load-displacement cycles and (b) flattening-displacement cycles

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Fig. 12

Test 8: ECCS load-displacement cycles

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Fig. 13

General view of the numerical model

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Fig. 14

Test 2: numerical results (a) load-displacement cycles and (b) flattening-displacement cycles

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Fig. 15

Test 6: numerical results (a) load-displacement cycles and (b) flattening-displacement cycles

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Fig. 16

Test 8: numerical results load-displacement cycles

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Fig. 17

Concentrations of plastic deformations—side views and ovalization of middle section: (a) closing bending loads and (b) opening bending loads

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Fig. 18

Displacement range versus number of cycles to failure

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Fig. 19

Local hoop strain range versus number of cycles to failure

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Fig. 20

Failure prediction using the miner's rule

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