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Research Papers: Technical Forum

Noise Generation and Propagation Within Corrugated Pipes

[+] Author and Article Information
Hugh Goyder

Cranfield University,
Shrivenham Swindon SN6 8LA, UK
e-mail: h.g.d.goyder@cranfield.ac.uk

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received May 27, 2012; final manuscript received March 13, 2013; published online May 21, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Samir Ziada.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 135(3), 030901 (May 21, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: PVT-12-1072; doi: 10.1115/1.4024024 History: Received May 27, 2012; Revised March 13, 2013

Corrugated pipes have the advantage of being flexible but the disadvantage of generating unacceptable levels of noise. The noise generated within these pipes is due to oscillation of vortices formed within the corrugations. The noise can induce vibration and unacceptable fatigue damage. Consequently, it is desirable to have a method for predicting the flow conditions that facilitate noise and the noise levels that are generated. This paper develops a theoretical model for the noise generation by considering the interaction of an acoustic wave with the vortices. The key issue that emerges is the delay or phase angle between vortex production in the corrugations and an acoustic standing wave. For the usual conditions, where there are many corrugations in a wavelength, it is possible to form a differential equation for the build-up and saturation of an acoustic resonance. The relative few parameters within this differential equation provide a good basis for modeling the occurrence and level of noise produced. It is anticipated that some experimental input will always be needed for particular corrugation geometries.

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Figures

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Fig. 3

Diagrammatic representation of pipe, flow, cavities, and shear layers. The sources are dipoles shown as arrows at the trailing edge.

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Fig. 2

Corrugated pipe carcass showing cavity and shear layer. Cavity width , cavity pitch w.

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Fig. 1

Construction of corrugated pipe. 1. Antifriction layer, 2. Outer layer of tensile armor, 3. Antiwear layer, 4. Inner layer of tensile armor, 5. Back-up pressure armor, 6. Interlocked pressure armor, 7. Internal pressure sheath, 8. Carcass.

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Fig. 4

Illustration of vortices within a corrugation. A and B are approximations to the boundary layer set up by the free stream U0. The vortices move with typical velocity Uc across the cavity.

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Fig. 5

Simulation of Eq. (1) and Eq. (A2). U0 = 3 m/s, fj = f = 100 Hz, ℓ/w = 1/3, N0 s2 = 0.1, β = 0.075

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Fig. 6

Acoustic velocity, û/U0, as a function of damping ratio as given by Eq. (16b). The individual curves correspond to the resonances for which the wavelength to pipe length ratios, L/λ is as shown. Other parameters are: Strouhal number 0.5, ℓ/w = 1/3, β = 0.075, γ = 0.25, f = fj, D = 0.18 m, s2 = 0.01, and l = 25 mm. The dashed line is drawn at a damping ratio ζ = 0.05 and only those curves intersected will produce noise.

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