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Research Papers: Design and Analysis

Viscoelastic Strain Hardening Model for Gasket Creep Relaxation

[+] Author and Article Information
Sayed A. Nassar

Fellow ASME
Fastening and Joining Research Institute,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Oakland University,
Rochester, MI 48309

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering. Manuscript received May 6, 2011; final manuscript received July 23, 2012; published online May 21, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Hakim A. Bouzid.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 135(3), 031201 (May 21, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: PVT-11-1114; doi: 10.1115/1.4023501 History: Received May 06, 2011; Revised July 23, 2012

This paper proposes a novel strain hardening model for investigating gasket creep relaxation under compressive step-loading at room temperature. A closed form solution is developed for predicting the steady-state gasket pressure. Step-loading of the gasket may be directly achieved and controlled, or indirectly estimated through the bolt tightening and retightening torque. The effect of gasket material, time duration at each stress level, as well as the geometric parameters of the gasket are investigated. An experimental procedure and test setup are used to validate the proposed gasket model.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
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References

Bickford, J. H., 1998, Gaskets and Gasketed Joints, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, p. 91.
Bickford, J. H., 1998, Gaskets and Gasketed Joints, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, p. 404.
Alkelani, A. A., Housari, B. A., and Nassar, S. A., 2008, “A Proposed Model for Creep Relaxation of Soft Gaskets in Bolted Joints at Room Temperature,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 130(1), 011211. [CrossRef]
Kobayashi, T., Nishida, T., and Yamanaka, Y., 2003, “Effect of Creep-Relaxation Characteristics of Gaskets on the Bolt Loads of Gasketed Joints,” ASME-PVP Conference, Paper No. PVP2003-1879, 457, pp. 111–118.
Kraus, H., and Rosenkrans, W., 1984, “Creep of Bolted Flanged Connections,” Welding Resource Council Bulletin No. 294, pp. 2–8.
Kraus, H., 1980, Creep Analysis, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.
Bazergui, A., 1984, “Short Term Creep and Relaxation Behavior of Gaskets,” Welding Resource Council Bulletin No.294, pp. 9–22.
Bouzid, A., and Chaaban, A., 1997, “An Accurate Method of Evaluating Relaxation in Bolted Flanged Connections,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 119, pp. 10–17. [CrossRef]
Bibel, G., and Ezell, R., 1996, “Bolted Flange Assembly: Preliminary Elastic Interaction Data and Improved Bolt-Up Procedures,” Welding Resource Council Bulletin No. 408, pp. 1–27.
Alkelani, A. A., Nassar, S. A., and Housari, B. A., 2009, “Formulation of Elastic Interaction Between Bolts During the Tightening of Flat-Face Gasketed Joints,” Trans. ASME J. Mech. Des., 131, 021004. [CrossRef]
Tsuji, H., and Terui, Y., 2008, “Application of Bolted Flange Joint Assembly Guidelines HPIS Z103 TR to EPTFE Sheet Gasket,” Proceedings of the 2008 ASME-PVP Conference, Paper No. PVP2008-61454, Chicago, IL, pp. 181–187.
Czernick, D. E., 1996, Gaskets Design, Selection, and Testing, McGraw-Hill, New York, p. 89.
Schiessel, H., Metzler, R., Blumen, A., and Nonnenmacher, T. F., 1995, “Generalized Viscoelastic Models: Their Fractional Equations With Solutions,” J. Phys. A, 28, p. 6567. [CrossRef]
Penny, P. K., and Marriott, D. L., 1995, Design for Creep, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, p. 13.
Kraus, H., 1980, Creep Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 21–23.
Bickford, J. H., and Nassar, S. A., eds., 1998, “Computing the Stiffness of a Fastener,” Handbook of Bolts and Bolted Joints, J.Barron, ed., Marcel Dekker, New York, Chap. 11.
Nassar, S. A., and Sun, T., 2007, “Surface Roughness Effect on the Torque-Tension Relationship in Threaded Fasteners,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J: J. Eng. Tribol., 221, pp. 95–103. [CrossRef]

Figures

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Fig. 2

Typical gasket creep curve

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Fig. 3

Variable stress applied on gasket

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Fig. 4

Stress–strain curve for loading and unloading

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Fig. 5

Strain hardening: scenario 1

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Fig. 6

Strain hardening: scenario 2

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Fig. 7

Gasket creep test setup

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Fig. 8

Gasket loading pattern

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Fig. 9

Model prediction and experimental data of gasket creep relaxation (PTFE, 1/8 in. thick (3.175 mm))

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Fig. 10

Model prediction and experimental data of gasket creep relaxation (PTFE, 3/16 in. thick (4.76 mm))

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Fig. 11

Model prediction and experimental data of gasket creep relaxation (red rubber, 1/8 in. thick (3.175 mm))

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Fig. 12

Model prediction and experimental data of gasket creep relaxation (red rubber, 3/16 in. thick (4.76 mm))

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Fig. 13

Model prediction and experimental data of gasket creep relaxation (PTFE, 1/8 in. thick (3.175 mm))

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Fig. 14

Model prediction and experimental data of gasket creep relaxation (PTFE, 3/16 in. thick (4.76 mm))

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Fig. 15

Model prediction and experimental data of gasket creep relaxation (red rubber, 1/8 in. thick (3.175 mm))

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Fig. 16

Model prediction and experimental data of gasket creep relaxation (rubber, 3/16 in. thick (4.76 mm))

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Fig. 17

Stages of gasket compression

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Fig. 18

Experimental setup for residual bolt tension

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Fig. 19

Gasket creep relaxation flow chart

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Fig. 20

Bolt tension reduction due to gasket creep relaxation (PTFE, 1/8 in. thick (3.175 mm))

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Fig. 21

Bolt tension reduction due to gasket creep relaxation (PTFE 3/16 in. thick (4.76 mm))

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Fig. 22

Bolt tension reduction due to gasket creep relaxation (red rubber 1/8 in. thick (3.175 mm))

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Fig. 23

Bolt tension reduction due to gasket creep relaxation (red rubber 3/16 in. thick (4.76 mm))

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