Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Study of Life Prediction and Damage Mechanism for Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Under Creep-Fatigue Interaction

[+] Author and Article Information
Guodong Zhang

e-mail: zhanggdln@163.com

Yanfen Zhao

Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute,
Xihuan Road,
Suzhou 215004, China

Fei Xue

Department of Material Science and
Tsinghua University,
Haidian District,
Beijing 10084, China

Changyu Zhou

School of Mechanical and Power Engineering,
Nanjing University of Technology,
Xinmofan Road,
Nanjing 210009, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology. Manuscript received April 3, 2012; final manuscript received December 13, 2012; published online June 11, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Osamu Watanabe.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 135(4), 041402 (Jun 11, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: PVT-12-1039; doi: 10.1115/1.4023424 History: Received April 03, 2012; Revised December 13, 2012

Creep-fatigue interaction is a principal cause of failures of many engineering components under high temperature and cyclic loading. In this work, stress controlled creep-fatigue interaction tests are carried out for modified 9Cr-1Mo (P91) steel. In order to study the damage mechanism of P91 steel under creep-fatigue interaction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of specimen fracture morphology and in-situ observation experiments were conducted. Based on the ductility exhaustion theory and creep-fatigue interaction tests data, the modified ductility exhaustion life prediction model was developed. The predicted results are in a good agreement with the experiment. By comparison with frequency separation model, the life predicted by ductility exhaustion model is better than frequency separation model obviously. The results show that different stress amplitude and mean stress have great effect on the fracture damage mechanism when the hold time is invariable. By the SEM analysis of fracture morphology, the damage characters of creep, creep-fatigue interaction and fatigue can be partitioned. The specimen crack initiation source is the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel inclusion. Therefore, this work can provide a reference of life prediction and design for high temperature materials and components.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Takahashi, Y., 2008, “Study on Creep-Fatigue Evaluation Procedures for High-Chromiun Steels—Part I: Test Results and Life Prediction Based on Measured Stress Relaxation,” Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping, 85, pp. 406–422. [CrossRef]
Viswanathan, R., and Bakker, W., 2001, “Materials for Ultra Supercritical Coal Power Plants—Boiler Materials: Part 1,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 10, pp. 81–95. [CrossRef]
Lee, H. Y., Lee, S. H., Kim, J. B., and Lee, J. H., 2007, “Creep-Fatigue Damage for a Structure With Dissimilar Metal Welds of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel and 316 Stain Steel,” Int. J. Fatigue, 29, pp. 1868–1879. [CrossRef]
Zhang, G. D., Zhao, Y. F., Xue, F., Wang, Z. X., and Zhou, C. Y., 2010, “Life Prediction of High temperature Welded Component by Skeletal Point Rupture Stress,” Adv. Mater. Res., 118–120, pp. 156–160. [CrossRef]
Hyde, T. H., Becker, A. A., Sun, W., and Williams, J. A., 2006, “Finite-Element Creep Damage Analyses of P91 Pipes,” Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping, 83, pp. 853–863. [CrossRef]
Jiang, W. C., Gong, J. M., Chen, H., and Tu, S. T., 2008, “The Effect of Filler Metal Thickness on Residual Stress and Creep for Stainless-Steel Plate-Fin Structure,” Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping, 85, pp. 569–574. [CrossRef]
Jiang, W. C., Gong, J. M., and Tu, S. T., 2008, “Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Brazed Residual Stress on Creep for Stainless Steel Plate-Fin Structure,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 130, p. 041203. [CrossRef]
Jiang, W. C., Gong, J. M., Tu, S. T., and Chen, H., 2009, “Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Brazed Residual Stress and Its High-Temperature Redistribution for Stainless Steel Plate-Fin Structure,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 499, pp. 293–298. [CrossRef]
Guo, Y. Z., and Zneg, Z. J., 1995, “The Low-Cycle Fatigue Life Prediction at Medium Temperature for a Pressure Vessel With Large Opening,” Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping, 62, pp. 167–170. [CrossRef]
Jiang, W. C., Gong, J. M., and Tu, S. T., 2011, “Fatigue Life Prediction of a Stainless Steel Plate-Fin Structure Using Equivalent-Homogeneous-Solid Method,” Mater. Des., 32, pp. 4936–4942. [CrossRef]
Kuroda, M., 2001, “Extremely Low Cycle Fatigue Life Prediction Based on a New Cumulative Fatigue Damage Model,” Int. J. Fatigue, 24, pp. 699–703. [CrossRef]
Manson, S. S., 1966, Thermal Stress and Low Cycle Fatigue, McGraw Hill, New York, pp. 125–192.
He, J. R., 1988, Metal Fatigue at High Temperature, Science press, Peking. (in Chinese).
Coffin, L. F., 1974, “Fatigue at High Temperature-Prediction and Interpretation,” James Clayton Memorial Lecture at the University of Sheffield, Institute of Mechanical Engineers, London, April, Vol. 188, pp. 109–127.
Goswami, T., 2004, “Development of Generic Creep-Fatigue Life Prediction Models,” Mater. Des., 25, pp. 277–288. [CrossRef]
Aoto, K., Komine, R., Ueno, F., Kawasaki, H., and Wada, Y., 1994, “Creep-Fatigue Evaluation of Normalized and Tempered Modified 9Cr-1Mo,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 153, pp. 97–110. [CrossRef]
Fan, Z. C., Chen, X. D., Chen, L., and Jiang, J. L., 2007, “Fatigue-creep Behavior of 1.25Cr0.5Mo Steel at High Temperature and Its Life Prediction,” Int. J. Fatigue, 29, pp. 1174-1183. [CrossRef]
Fournier, B., Sauzay, M., Caes, C., Noblecourt, M., Mottot, M., Bougault, A., Rabeau, V., and Pineau, A., 2008, “Creep Fatigue Oxidation Interactions in a 9Cr1Mo Martensitic Steel. Part I: Effect of Tensile Holding Period on Fatigue Lifetime,” Int. J. Fatigue, 30(4), pp. 649–662. [CrossRef]
Fournier, B., Sauzay, M., Caes, C., Noblecourt, M., Mottot, M., Bougault, A., Rabeau, V., Man, J., Gillia, O., Lemoine, P., and Pineau, A., 2008, “Creep Fatigue Oxidation Interactions in a 9Cr1Mo Martensitic Steel. Part III: Lifetime Prediction,” Int. J. Fatigue, 30(10–11), pp. 1797–1812. [CrossRef]
Chen, L., Jiang, J. L., Fan, Z. C., Chen, X. D., and Yang, T. C., 2007, “A New Model for Life Prediction of Fatigue-Creep Interaction,” Int. J. Fatigue, 29(4), pp. 615–619. [CrossRef]
Nam, S. W., Lee, S. C., and Lee, J. M., 1995, “The Effect of Creep Cavitation on the Fatigue Life Under Creep-Fatigue Interaction,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 153, pp. 213–221. [CrossRef]
Yeol, J. C., and Nam, S. W., 1999, “Estimation of the Damaging Energy Under Creep-Fatigue Interaction Conditions in 1Cr-Mo-V Steel,” Scr. Mater., 40(5), pp. 623–629. [CrossRef]
Goswami, T., 1997, “Low Cycle Fatigue Life Prediction—A New Model,” Int. J. Fatigue, 19(2), pp. 109–115. [CrossRef]
Fan, Z. C., Chen, X. D., Chen, L., and Jiang, J. L., 2006, “Prediction Method for Fatigue-Creep Interaction Life Based on Ductility Exhaustion Theory,” Acta Metall. Sin. (Engl. Lett.), 42(4), pp. 415–420. (in Chinese)
Edmund, H. G., and While, D. J., 1966, “Observation of the Effect of Creep Relaxation on High-Strain Fatigue,” J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 8(3), pp. 310–321. [CrossRef]
Chen, G. L., Yang, W. Y., and Shu, G. G., 1991, “Fatigue-Creep Interaction and Fracture Model of Cr-Mo-V Heat Resistant Steel in Steam Pipe Line,” Acta Metall. Sin. (Engl. Lett), 27(2), pp. A137–A142. (in Chinese)
Halford, G. R., 1987, “Thermal Stress II,” E. B.Hetnarski, ed., Elsevier Science Publication, Oxford (United Kingdom), pp. 330–428.
Anon, 1976, “Code Case N-47, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Criteria for Design of Elevated Temperature,” Class I Components in Section III, Division I, ASME, New York.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Geometry of the specimen in fatigue-creep interaction tests; dimensions in mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Trapezium waveform used in fatigue-creep interaction loading conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Specimen fixed on the in-situ observation equipment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Hysteresis loops of 0–320 MPa

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

The relationship of stress-strain in one hysteresis loop

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Relationship between stress amplitude, mean stress, and life

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The P91 steel plastic strain range in creep-fatigue interaction, (a) 1#–5# specimens, (b) 6#–10# specimens, and (c) 11#–15# specimens

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Best-fit curve of the DE and FS model with experimental results, (a) DE model and (b) FS model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Life prediction results comparison between DE model and FS model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Fracture morphology of the specimen under maximum stress 340 MPa, (a) −200–340 MPa, (b) 0–340 MPa, and (c) 200–340 MPa

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Damage process of the P91 steel under creep-fatigue interaction observed by in-situ test, (a) inclusion; (b) crack initiation in inclusion; (c) crack propagation; (d) fracture; and (e) the inclusion chemical composition analyzed by EDS




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In