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Research Papers: Design and Analysis

Development of a New Bolt Spacing Formula

[+] Author and Article Information
Tan Dan Do

e-mail: tandan_do@yahoo.com

Abdel-Hakim Bouzid

Fellow ASME
Professor
e-mail: hakim.bouzid@etsmtl.ca

Thien-My Dao

Professor
e-mail: thien-my.dao@etsmtl.ca
Ecole de Technologie Superieure,
Mechanical Engineering Department,
1100, rue Notre-Dame Ouest,
Montreal, QC H3C 1K3, Canada

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received October 19, 2012; final manuscript received August 8, 2013; published online November 7, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Sayed Nassar.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 136(1), 011206 (Nov 07, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: PVT-12-1161; doi: 10.1115/1.4025613 History: Received October 19, 2012; Revised August 08, 2013

Bolted flange joints are extensively used to connect pressure vessels and piping equipment together. They are simple structures that offer the possibility of disassembly. However, they often experience leakage problems due to a loss of tightness as a result of a nonuniform distribution of gasket contact stresses in the radial and circumferential directions. Many factors contribute to such a failure; the flange and gasket stiffness, bolt spacing or a combination of them are to name a few. In our recent papers, the effect of bolt spacing was investigated based on the theory of circular beams on linear elastic foundation and on the theory of rings on nonlinear elastic foundation. The variations of the contact stress between bolts were of a concern. This paper is an extension of the work in which an analytical solution, based on the theory of circular beams resting in a linear elastic foundation, has been developed to determine a formulae for flange bolt spacing. The relationship between bolt spacing, gasket compression modulus, and flange thickness is deduced from an analysis that considers a maximum tolerated gasket contact stress difference between any two bolts.

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References

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EN 1591-1:2001+A1:2009, 2009, “Flanges and Their Joints—Design Rules for Gasketed Circular Flange Connections Part 1: Calculation Method.”
Waters, E. O., Rossheim, D. B., Wesstrom, D. B., and Williams, F. S. G., 1937, “Formulas for Stresses in Bolted Flanged Connections,” Transactions of American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 59(3), pp. 161–169.
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Lehnhoff, T. F., McKay, M. L., and Bellora, V. A., 1992, “Member Stiffness and Bolt Spacing of Bolted Joints,” Recent Advances in Structural Mechanics, Pressure Vessels and Piping Division, PVP, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 248, pp. 63–72.
McKee, R., and Reddy, H., 1995, “Apparent Stiffness of a Bolted Flange,” Computer Integrated Concurrent Design Conference, Design Engineering Division, DE, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 83(2), Part 2, pp. 877–883.
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Bouzid, A., and Champliaud, H., 2004, “Contact Stress Evaluation of Nonlinear Gaskets Using Dual Kriging Interpolation,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 126(4), pp. 445–450. [CrossRef]
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Do, T. D., Bouzid, A., and Dao, T. M., 2010, “Effect of Bolt Spacing on the Circumferential Distribution of Gasket Contact Stress in Bolted Flange Joints,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 133(4), p. 041205. [CrossRef]
Do, T. D., Bouzid, A., and Dao, T. M., 2010, “On the Use of the Theory of Ring on Non-Linear Elastic Foundation to Study the Effect of Bolt Spacing in Bolted Flange Joints,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 134(6), p. 060203.
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Bolted flange joint

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Fig. 2

Infinitesimal element model of flange

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Fig. 3

Percentage difference between maximum and average contact stresses; 52 in. HE flange

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Fig. 4

Percentage difference between maximum and average contact stresses; 120 in. HE flange

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Fig. 5

Relationship between bolt spacing and gasket compression modulus; NPS 16 class 300 flange

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Fig. 6

Relationship between bolt spacing and gasket compression modulus; 24 in. HE flange

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Fig. 7

Relationship between bolt spacing and gasket compression modulus; 52 in. HE flange

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Fig. 8

Relationship between bolt spacing and gasket compression modulus; 120 in. HE flange

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Fig. 9

Relationship between bolt spacing and flange thickness; 24 in. HE flange

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Fig. 10

Relationship between bolt spacing and flange thickness; 52 in. HE flange

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Fig. 11

Relationship between bolt spacing regression and gasket compression modulus NPS 16 class 300 flange

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Fig. 12

Relationship between bolt spacing regression and gasket compression modulus 52 in. HE flange

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Fig. 13

Relationship between bolt spacing regression and gasket compression modulus 24 in. HE flange

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Fig. 14

Relationship between bolt spacing regression and gasket compression modulus 120 in. HE flange

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