0
Technical Briefs

The Danger of Piping Failure Due to Acoustic-Induced Fatigue in Infrequent Operations: Two Case Studies

[+] Author and Article Information
Husain Mohammed Al-Muslim

e-mail: Husain.muslim.2@aramco.com

Nadhir Ibrahim Al-Nasri

e-mail: Nadhir.nasri@aramco.com

Mohammad Y. Al-Hashem

e-mail: Mohammad.hashem@aramco.com
Saudi Aramco
Dhahran 31311, Saudi Arabia

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received April 21, 2012; final manuscript received April 29, 2013; published online October 10, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Allen C. Smith.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 135(6), 064501 (Oct 10, 2013) (5 pages) Paper No: PVT-12-1046; doi: 10.1115/1.4025081 History: Received April 21, 2012; Revised April 29, 2013

Failure in piping due to acoustic-induced fatigue can be considered catastrophic as it could happen only after a few minutes of operation. Acoustic-induced fatigue occurs mainly in gas piping systems with high velocity where high energy is dissipated through pressure reducing stations and pipe branch connections. It usually results in pipe through wall longitudinal cracks, pipe detachment from saddle supports, and complete shear off of branch connections. There are existing design criteria to avoid acoustic-induced fatigue based on comparison of generated power level to an acceptable power level. This criterion is normally used for the design of pressure relief and flare piping where high gas velocity exceeding 50% of the speed of sound (i.e., 0.5 Mach) is expected. However, acoustic-induced fatigue has been experienced in systems due to intermittent operations. Two case studies are presented in this paper. The first one is during a steam-out operation to clean a newly constructed steam header. During the cleaning operation, an orifice plate was used to control the flow in the steam header. Several pipe vents and drains failed due to fatigue in less than 1 h. The second case is for drainage of compressed natural gas during process upset condition. Because of the high level buildup in the liquefied gas separator vessel, the drain valve was opened to release the pressurized liquefied gas to the relief system to reduce the level buildup. Wall cracks and several pipe support detachments were found in the system after the upset condition. This paper presents the engineering analysis and material failure analysis conducted to find the root causes of the failures. Moreover, it highlights the recommendations and lessons learned from these two failures.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Illustration of shell-mode vibration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of case 1: steam cleaning of a newly constructed pipe

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Crack locations of the relief header line

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Photograph showing cracking along the relief header line

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Weld attachments of pipe supports have completely sheared off

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Case 1: fracture surface of vent line. The beach marks with multiple initiation sites and multiple ratchet marks are clear indication of fatigue failure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Case 1: fracture surface of drain line. The arrow points to a beach mark, which indicates the fatigue failure.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Case 2: crack face of the failed branch

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Case 2: cross section of crack, exterior surface, 32×, oxalic acid elect

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Schematic illustration of case 2: draining liquefied natural gas to atmospheric relief line

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Cracked weld of structural attachment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Drain completely sheared off

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Vent completely sheared off

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In