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Research Papers: Design and Analysis

Investigation of Bulging Behavior of Coke Drum: Feasible Study on Causes of Bulging

[+] Author and Article Information
Mitsuru Ohata

Division of Materials
and Manufacturing Science,
Graduate School of Engineering,
Osaka University,
2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita,
Osaka 565-0871, Japan

Nana Kawai, Tetsuya Tagawa

Division of Materials
and Manufacturing Science,
Graduate School of Engineering,
Osaka University,
2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita,
Osaka 565-0871, Japan

Fumiyoshi Minami

Division of Materials
and Manufacturing Science,
Graduate School of Engineering,
Osaka University,
2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita,
Osaka 565-0871, Japan

Toshiya Yamamoto, Kazuaki Arii

Sumitomo Heavy Industries
Process Equipment Co., Ltd.,
1501 Imazaike,
Saijo-city, Ehime 799-1393, Japan

Shinta Niimoto

Sumitomo Heavy Industries
Process Equipment Co., Ltd.,
1501 Imazaike,
Saijo-city, Ehime 799-1393, Japan

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received December 21, 2011; final manuscript received June 9, 2013; published online April 4, 2014. Editor: Young W. Kwon.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 136(3), 031205 (Apr 04, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: PVT-11-1229; doi: 10.1115/1.4026046 History: Received December 21, 2011; Revised June 09, 2013

Coke drums undergo cyclic operations typically in the temperature range from ambient temperature to about 500 °C (930 °F). During quenching, the coke drum is inevitably subjected to a rapid drop in temperature because cooling water is injected directly into the coke drum through the bottom inlet nozzle. The temperature profile on the shell surface is no more uneven in quenching, and can vary in each cycle of quenching operation. Such complicate thermal profile induces large strains in the shell portion of the coke drum, and eventually causes damage like bulging or cracking. This study makes investigations into the bulging behavior of the coke drum by the thermal elastic-plastic FE-analysis. In this work, a feasible study is conducted on potential causes of bulging. As factors inducing a heterogeneous plasticity in the shell structure of the coke drum, the strength overmatch of welds and the uneven temperature field in quenching as well as quenching conditions are focused. The analytical result shows that strength overmatch in girth seam welds can be one of the causes of plastic distortion under one operating cycle. The lower rising rate of cooling source can induce plastic straining over the whole shell wall, which tends to induce more remarkable plastic distortion.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Typical operation cycle of coke drum

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Fig. 2

Coke drum model used in the FE-analysis

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Fig. 3

Assumed cooling method of coke drum

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Fig. 4

Equivalent stress—equivalent plastic strain curves at various temperature. (a) Base steel, (b) weld metal (Sr = 1.2)

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Fig. 5

Effect of K on transient temperature distributions when the cooling source reached location-A. (a) In the shell wall, (b) in thickness direction at location-A.

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Fig. 6

Effect of K on time history of temperature at inner surface at location A

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Fig. 7

Effect of K on plastic straining behaviors.(a) Equivalent plastic strain distribution in the shell wall after quenching process, (b) equivalent plastic strain distribution in thickness direction at location-A after quenching process

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Fig. 8

Effect of Vc on transient temperature distributions when the cooling source reached location-A

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Fig. 9

Effect of Vc on plastic straining behaviors. (a) Equivalent plastic strain distribution in the shell wall after quenching process, (b) equivalent plastic strain distribution in thickness direction at location-A after quenching process.

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Fig. 10

Equivalent plastic strain distribution around overmatched welds after quenching process

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Fig. 11

Plastic distortion behaviors of shell wall around overmatched seam welds

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Fig. 12

Transient plastic straining behaviors during quenching process. (a) Vc = 300 mm/min, (b) Vc = 100 mm/min

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Fig. 13

Distribution of plastic strain components produced at BM and at WM in the drum shell after quenching process. (a) Vc = 300 mm/min, (b) Vc = 100 mm/min

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Fig. 14

The model for analyzing the effect of heterogeneous quenching condition on plastic distortion behavior

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Fig. 15

Equivalent plastic strain distribution around heterogeneously cooled region after quenching process

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Fig. 16

Distribution of plastic strain components produced at locations-B and -C after quenching process

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Fig. 17

Plastic distortion behavior of shell wall around heterogeneously cooled region after quenching process

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Fig. 18

Comparison between plastic distortion after 1st and 10th operation cycle

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Fig. 19

Distributions of plastic strain components in wall thickness direction after 1st and 10th operation cycle

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Fig. 20

Time history of the transient stress and plastic strain components through 1st and 2nd operation cycle on inner surface. (a) Transient stress components (b) transient plastic strain components.

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