Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Ultrasonic Measurement of Thick-Walled Pipe Diameter Changes

[+] Author and Article Information
Jacek Szelążek

Department of Strength of Materials,
Institute of Fundamental Technological Research,
Warsaw 02-106, Poland
e-mail: jszela@ippt.pan.pl

Piotr Gutkiewicz

Department of Strength of Materials,
Institute of Fundamental Technological Research,
Warsaw 02-106, Poland
e-mail: pgutkie@ippt.pan.pl

Paweł Grzywna

Department of Strength of Materials,
Institute of Fundamental Technological Research,
Warsaw 02-106, Poland
e-mail: pgrzywna@ippt.pan.pl

Sławomir Mackiewicz

Department of Strength of Materials,
Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
Warsaw 02-106, Poland
e-mail: smackie@ippt.pan.pl

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received March 5, 2012; final manuscript received November 25, 2013; published online April 28, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Jianmin Qu.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 136(4), 041408 (Apr 28, 2014) (6 pages) Paper No: PVT-12-1025; doi: 10.1115/1.4026114 History: Received March 05, 2012; Revised November 25, 2013

Thick-walled, main stream pipelines are key elements in many power and chemical plants. Operating for a long time in high temperature and subjected to internal pressure such pipes are subjected to creep resulting in material degradation and strain. The most common method of pipe state evaluation is pipe diameter monitoring. Usually such measurements are performed with micrometer gauge in locations where special “pips” were earlier installed. Other methods are also tested to monitor creep progress like various temperature-resistance strain gauges or eddy current sensors. The paper examines a new ultrasonic technique to evaluate thick-walled pipe diameter changes. Pipe diameter evaluation is based on time of flight of bulk ultrasonic waves propagating in circumferential direction along the polygon, reflecting on the pipe external surface only. Presented are results of experiments performed on 100 mm diameter pipe subjected to internal pressure to generate small diameter changes and on 273 mm diameter and 40 mm wall thickness pipe section. Measurements were performed with longitudinal, shear SV and shear SH waves. Described are advantages and disadvantages of various ultrasonic wave types for pipe diameter evaluation in practice. Discussed is the influence of residual stresses and temperature on accuracy of pipe diameter evaluation with proposed technique. Shear SV wave was chosen as the most easily applicable ultrasonic wave on thick-walled tubes.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Topics: Waves , Pipes
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Fig. 1

Schema of bulk wave propagation in a thick-wall pipe, along the polygon in the circumferential direction: (a)—triple-reflected wave, (b)—4-times reflected wave, (c)—5-times reflected, etc. Until the subsurface wave.

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Fig. 2

Schema of the probehead coupled to the pipe external surface and the path of ultrasonic pulse from transmitting to receiving transducer

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Fig. 3

Two-transducer probes for shear SV (left) and SH (right) waves on the 273 mm diameter pipe sample. Dotted lines mark the transducers positions. Arrows—paths of ultrasonic pulses in the wedges and pipe wall.

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Fig. 4

Shear SH wave TOF dependence on internal pressure for 190 mm diameter steel pipe

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Fig. 5

Oscilloscope screen for SH wave propagating in the 273 mm pipe

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Fig. 6

Oscilloscope screen for SV wave propagating in the 273 mm pipe

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Fig. 7

Second round trip pulses of SV wave in the 273 mm pipe (magnification)

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Fig. 8

Relative temperature-dependent changes for longitudinal wave in the probehead wedge and SV shear wave in the 273 mm pipe material




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