Research Papers: Design and Analysis

Fracture Mode Transition for Explosively Loaded GB/JB 20 Steel Containment Vessels

[+] Author and Article Information
Ma Li, Hu Yang, Du Yang, Zheng Jinyang

Institute of Process Equipment,
Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou 310027, China

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received February 1, 2012; final manuscript received January 17, 2014; published online February 27, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Hardayal S. Mehta.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 136(3), 031203 (Feb 27, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: PVT-12-1016; doi: 10.1115/1.4026578 History: Received February 01, 2012; Revised January 17, 2014

A rupture experiment was conducted on cylindrical explosion containment vessels (ECVs), where the fracture mode transition was observed. Microstructure examinations indicate the material GB/JB20 (AISI 1020) experienced a fibrous-to-cleavage fracture mechanism transition with increment of loading rate. Different from fracture mechanics method, a rate-dependent failure criterion is proposed to account for the dynamic fracture behavior, which is compatible with experimental observation that the material fails at low effective plastic strain when at high strain rates. A finite element analysis of a cylindrical containment vessel with different sizes of initial cracks was performed, where the overpressure caused by detonation was calculated, and the dynamic crack propagation and fracture mode transition were reproduced. In addition, a failure assessment including the estimation of limiting crack sizes corresponding to impulsive loading was conducted. It was found that a small variation of initial crack size has minor influence on the final fracture mode and profile, which is mainly dependent upon the intensity of impulsive load as well as the loading rate. The results also indicate that the crack propagates with strongly nonlinear speeding, most cracking length developed during the first structural vibration cycle.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Clayton, A. M., 2001, “Hydrodynamics Research Facility Design Methods Used for AWE Containment Vessels,” Welding Res. Council Bull., 56(11-12), pp. 6–28.
Cases of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessels Code, 2010, Case 2564-2, Section VIII, Division 3, New York.
Kuntiyawichai, K., and Burdekin, F. M., 2003, “Engineering Assessment of Cracked Structures Subjected to Dynamic Loads Using Fracture Mechanics Assessment,” Eng. Fract. Mech., 70, pp. 1991–2014. [CrossRef]
Kalthoff, J. F., 1987, “Shadow Optical Analysis of Dynamic Shear Fracture,” SPIE, Photomechanics and Speckle Metrology, Vol. 814, pp. 531–538.
Kalthoff, J. K., and Winkler, S., 1988, “Failure Mode Transition at High Rates of Loading,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Impact Loading and Dynamic Behavior of Materials, C. Y.Chiem, H. D.Kunze, and L. W.Meyer, eds., pp. 43–56.
Needleman, A., and Tvergaard, V., 1995, “Analysis of a Brittle-Ductile Transition Under Dynamic Shear Loading,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 32(17/18), pp. 2571–2590. [CrossRef]
Kalthoff, J. F., and Bürgel, A., 2004, “Influence of Loading Rate on Shear Fracture Toughness for Failure Mode Transition,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 30, pp. 957–971. [CrossRef]
Ravi-Chandar, K., 1995, “On the Failure Mode Transitions in Polycarbonate Dynamic Mixed-Mode Loading,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 32, pp. 925–938. [CrossRef]
Mason, J. J., RosakisA. J., and Ravi-ChandranG., 1994, “Full Field Measurement of the Dynamic Deformation Field Around a Growing Adiabatic Shear Band at the Tip of a Dynamically Loaded Crack or Notch,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 42, pp. 1679–1697. [CrossRef]
Zhou, M., Rosakis, A. J., and Ravichandran, G., 1996, “Dynamically Propagating Shear Bands in Impact Loaded Prenotched Plates-I. Experimental Investigation of Temperature Signatures and Propagation Speed,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 44(6), pp. 981–1006. [CrossRef]
Zhou, M., Ravichandran, G., and Rosakis, A. J., 1996, “Dynamically Propagating Shear Bands in Impact Loaded Prenotched Plates-II. Numerical Simulations,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 44(6), pp. 1007–1032. [CrossRef]
Nesterenko, V. F., and Bondar, M. P., 1994, “Localization of Deformation in Collapse of a Thick-Walled Cylinder,” Combust., Explos. Shock Waves, 30(4), pp. 500–509. [CrossRef]
Batra, R. C., and Zhang, X. T., 1994, “On the Propagation of a Shear Band in a Steel Tube,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 116, pp. 155–161. [CrossRef]
Chao, T. W., and Shepherd, J. E., 2004, “Comparison of Fracture Response of Preflawed Tubes Under Internal Static and Detonation Loading,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 126(3), pp. 345–353. [CrossRef]
Couque, H., Asaro, R. J., Duffy, J., and Lee, S. H., 1988, “Correlations of Microstructure With Dynamic and Quasi-Static Fracture in a Plain Carbon Steel,” Metall. Trans. A, 19, pp. 2179–2206. [CrossRef]
Ma, L., Hu, Y., Zheng, J., Deng, G., and Chen, Y., 2010, “Failure Analysis for Cylindrical Explosion Containment Vessels,” Eng. Failure Anal., 17, pp. 1221–1229. [CrossRef]
Lee, E. L., Hornig, H. C., and Kury, J. W., 1968, “Adiabatic Expansion of High Explosive Detonation Products,” Lawrance Livemore National Laborary LIvermore, CA.
Johnson, G. R., and Cook, W. H., 1983, “A Constitutive Model and Data for Metals Subjected to Large Strains, High Strain Rates and High Temperatures,” Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Ballistics, The Hague, The Netherlands, pp. 541–547.
Wang, L. L., Dong, X. L., and Sun, Z. J., 2006, “Dynamic Constitutive Behavior of Materials at High Strain Rate Taking Account of Damage Evolution,” Explos. Shock Waves, 26, pp. 193–198.
Wang, L. L., 1992, “Adiabatic Shearing-Constitutive Instability of Material Under Impact Loading,” Progress in Shock Dynamics, L. L.Wang, T. X.Yu, and Y. C.Li, eds., USTC Press, Hefei, China, pp. 3–33.
Li, Q. M., Dong, Q., and Zheng, J. Y., 2008, “Counter-Intuitive Breathing Mode Response of an Elastic-Plastic Circular Ring Subjected to Axisymmetric Internal Pressure Pulse,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 35, pp. 784–794. [CrossRef]
Li, Q. M., Dong, Q., and Zheng, J. Y., 2008, “Strain Growth of the In-Plane Response in an Elastic Cylindrical Shell,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 35, pp. 1130–1153. [CrossRef]
Dong, Q., Li, Q. M., and Zheng, J. Y., 2010, “Further Study on Strain Growth in Spherical Containment Vessels Subjected to Internal Blast Loading,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 37, pp. 196–206. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Tube fracture under static and detonation loading conditions [14], (a) static hydraulic experiment, and (b) detonation loading

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Experimental device

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Mixed fibrous-cleavage fracture

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Finite element model for overpressure analysis

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Overpressure comparison

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Failure analysis model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Finite element model with crack

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Rate-dependent failure criterion

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Crack propagation with 250 g TNT, (a) t = 45 μs, (b) t = 120 μs, (c) t = 270 μs, (d) t = 645 μs, (e) t = 1020 μs, and (f) t = 1685 μs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Crack propagation with 425 g TNT, (a) t = 45 μs, (b) t = 85 μs, (c) t = 150 μs, (d) t = 270 μs, (e) t = 560 μs, (f) t = 1015 μs, (g) t = 1685 μs, and (h) experimental fracture profile

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Crack propagation with 600 g TNT, (a) t = 45 μs, (b) t = 75 μs, (c) t = 95 μs, (d) t = 130 μs, (e) t = 170 μs, (f) t = 670 μs, (g) t = 1685 μs, and (h) experimental fracture profile

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Crack propagation with 250 g TNT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Crack propagation with 425 g TNT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Crack propagation with 600 g TNT




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In